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The Place of the Fool in the Tarot

Due to the astonishing popularity of the Waite-Smith pack and the ubiquity of its images as reproduced in ‘tribute’ decks such as the Morgan-Greer and Fez Morocco tarots, modern understanding of the Fool in English-speaking countries is deeply-rooted in the portrait of a young man blithely striding toward a precipice, a satchel on a pole slung over his shoulder, a rose in one hand, a dog leaping playfully beside him. The card is numbered zero and its symbolism is interpreted as depicting the soul at the start of a great adventure. Stepping off the precipice is a metaphor for the soul’s descent into matter, the Trump emblemizing the beginning of the Fool’s Journey, a quest that will end when he reaches Trump 21, The World, symbol of attainment and completion.

The master tarotists of the eighteenth- and nineteenth-centuries viewed the card through a lens composed of other distinctive symbols. The gaily caparisoned youth of the Waite-Smith and BOTA decks displaced an earlier image of more mature, bearded male, dressed in rags. In this picture, the dog is not capering beside the fool, it is attacking him from the rear and he is fleeing from its bite. The only factor the two representations have in common is the pack tied to a stick resting on the fool’s shoulder.

The foremost tarot experts prior to the twentieth-century relied upon the images from the Tarot de Marseille for their inspiration, believing them to be the most accurate representations of a fondly imagined, but mythical, ‘original tarot’. Whether they were mistaken or not in their belief need not detain us now. What is important, from the point of view of the history of tarot divination, is that those tarot savants took as their starting point the pictures on the Tarot de Marseille Trumps. Tarot de Marseille-style decks show the fool as bearded, his bundle at his back, in ragged clothes, pursued by a dog biting his hose, as in the examples that follow.

tdm fool z  ital qbl 22t  22 II

<beggar, vagrant>

Up to the time that Eliphas Levi took an interest in the tarot, occultists of every stripe placed the Fool at the end of the run of Trumps. In those days the Fool was unnumbered and thus stood out as something separate from the other Trumps. This led to a tendency to treat the Fool differently. A symbolic way of representing the whole deck was to project the minor arcana on to the four sides of square, one suit, fourteen cards, to each side. The numbered Trumps were project as the sides of a cards to each side. The Fool was designate by a dot at the center of the figure. The arrangement suggests that the tarot is made up of three parts – the minor arcana, the numbered cards of the major arcana, and the Fool. Instances where the Fool is treated as a special case can be found in A.E. Waite’s instructions of how the tarot should be read in The Manuel of Cartomancy and Occult Divination (first published under the pseudonym Grand Orient) and in Charles Williams’ occult novel The Greater Trumps.

glyph trt 2  glyph trt1

Both these figures depict the same energy, but each directs it in a different way.

The Fool placed at the end of the Trumps would have been Levi’s starting point. When he came to align the Trumps with A. Kircher’s interpretation of the Hebrew letters, he found that the unnumbered Trump and the significances assigned the last Hebrew letter were incompatible and he concluded that the Fool needed re-siting. By transposing the positions of The Fool and The World, Levi felt he had resolved the issue once and for all. Not wishing to disturb the Trumps’ traditional numerical order, Levi retained the number 21 for The World and the numberless state for the Fool.

Some who came after him altered the numbers too, making The Fool Trump 21 and The World Trump 22. <one papus deck, with the three levels at bottom – Divinatory Tarot>

Those who came after him had no such compunction. In 1936, a tarot was printed in Britain, designed by an artist under the joint influence of the French occultists Paul Christian and Eudes Piccard. Its Fool is numbered 21, its World 22.

mmTarot 22    mmTarot 21

The steps leading to this radical revision had been tentative at first. Once Levi had announced his opinion that the Fool ought to precede the World, supporters of both arrangements fought their respective corners with equal zeal and determination. Below are two examples of the World card from Tarot de Marseilles-type decks. Both images are identical but the Hebrew letter stamped in the bottom right-hand corner is, in the one case, Shin, the penultimate letter of the Hebrew alphabet, and in the other, Tau, the final Hebrew letter. The version with a Shin imprinted on it tells us that whoever is responsible for the creation of this deck considered the proper place for the World to be between Judgment and The Fool. The version with a Tau on it indicates that whoever is responsible for the creation of this deck saw the World as the final Trump, coming after the Fool.

21_monde_shin            21_monde-tau

The “correct” placement of the Fool was a matter of heated debate throughout the nineteenth century. Proponents of both hypotheses defended their stances with closely argued explanations which they themselves found entirely convincing while adherents of the opposing theory found them ludicrous. Then, around 1888, the Englishman, S.L. Mathers, came up with a revolutionary “solution” to the puzzle. He incorporated his discovery into the teachings of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, an esoteric school of which he was a founder member. His solution remained a secret for decades although it became very much an open secret upon the publication of the Waite-Smith tarot deck in 1910.

In the book he wrote to accompany that deck, The Key to the Tarot (later published so as to include line drawings of the cards and retitled The Pictorial Key to the Tarot), A.E. Waite assiduously sites the Fool between Judgement and the World in his commentary on the deck. However, by numbering the card Zero he encourages anyone scrutinizing the deck to bring The Fool to stand ahead of Trump 1, The Magician. Waite also gave the number 11 to Justice, previously numbered 8, and the number 8 to Strength, previously numbered 11. The switching out of these two trumps was the second key factor in Mathers’ re-arrangement of the Trumps. He reasoned that, since the sign Leo (the lion) preceded Libra (the scales), it made sense to set Strength (whereon a lion is depicted) ahead of Justice (who carries a pair of scales). Once this simple adjustment is made, and the Fool promoted to being first of the Trumps, Mathers argued, all the other symbolism falls effortlessly into place. The Emperor, in his war-bonnet, comes to correspond to Aries; The Hermit, an anchorite, to Virgo, the reserved virgin; The Star, with its water-pouring woman, to Aquarius; the mysterious Moon to dreamy Pisces.

Some of the other correspondences were not so exact but the images of those cards were adjusted to accommodate their new attributions. Temperance, for instance, equates in Mathers’ system to Sagittarius. Nothing about the Tarot de Marseilles version of Temperance or any of the early depictions of the Trump suggests this but Mathers had a rainbow added to the Order’s depiction of the card, intending to depict a connection between the rainbow and the bow carried by Sagittarius, the archer. Waite omits the rainbow on the Waite-Smith card, substituting instead an iris. For those with a classical education, the flower will suggest the Greek deity Iris, goddess of the rainbow. Not that Trump 14 had been associated with the rainbow before Mathers’ had his epiphany. There are no rainbows on any early representations of Temperance. No rainbow appears on Trump 14 in the “Egyptian tarot”, 1896, or on the Knapp-Hall deck, 1929. Paul Foster Case follows the Golden Dawn tradition by putting a rainbow on his Temperance card (c. 1930) but, as most modern tarot designers take the Waite-Smith deck as their point of departure, one rarely sees a rainbow on Temperance in more recent decks, though the iris may still be in evidence.

As a result of Levi’s and Mathers’ changes to the ordering of the Trumps, today there are three major ways of situating The Fool in a tarot deck: At the end of the Trumps, treated almost as pendant to them; between Judgment and The World; and as the first of the Trumps.

What individual tarot masters concluded about the divinatory significance of the Fool can be ascertained by examination of the changes of symbolism they accepted for the card, including the number they assigned it. Paul Christian, attempting to restore the tarot to its presumed Egyptian roots, added a broken obelisk to the design. In Christian’s description, ahead of the fool, lurking behind the obelisk, is a crocodile. The received wisdom is that the crocodile is lying in wait and will devour the fool as he attempts to pass. Versions of this image can be seen in the deck Papus used to illustrate his Tarot of the Bohemians, the Oswald Wirth and Moni Sadhu tarots and the British tarot from 1936 already referred to. The first three of these cards can be found below. Note that, while all are unnumbered, two have the letter Shin printed on them.

PapusWirth22  Arcane-Arcana-22-mat-fool  mouni-00

The final example gives the Fool the number 21. In the same pack The World is numbered 22. Many of the French tarot masters situated the Fool between Judgement and The World without altering its number. The Knapp-Hall tarot, in a bid to be all things to all tarot students, labels The Fool 21/22 and The World 22/21.

T22 equal shin christian influence    T21 knapp-hall

In the Fool card above, its divinatory meanings are sketched out by the single words written at the top of the card, and at the bottom, upside down. They are Italian for Ignorance and Stupidity respectively, and they reflect the significance allotted to the card prior to S.L. Mathers’ epiphany moved it to the front of the Trumps.

Today, thanks to the imagery of the Waite-Smith card, the Fool is normally read as predicting positive-tending events. It is taken to indicate new beginnings, inexperience, “expect the unexpected”, beginner’s luck, spontaneity, a thirst for life, endless possibilities, a leap of faith, or a calculated risk. The negative connotations the card originally bore tend to be relegated to its reversed position. Then it is said to indicate naivety, poor judgement, lack of direction, folly, stupidity, and the chaos brought about by foolish or silly acts and decisions; though in almost all the modern tarot manuals I’ve consulted, the first three meanings are the ones promoted; folly and stupidity and the results thereof are downplayed or don’t appear on the list at all. More significantly, one of the key meanings of the Fool reversed under the old dispensation is ignored entirely, and that is ‘neurosis’ or ‘mental health problems’. The modern world is acutely aware of both conditions and yet they have been removed from the tarot lexicon. This situation will be examined more closely in the second part of this discussion which will center on The Fool’s predictive meaning. 


World-Universe-Cosmos, part 2

by Tony Willis   

Let us take a moment to examine in greater detail the dancing figure on Trump 21. Occultists interpret her as the Anima Mundi, the Soul of the World. (It is worth noting that in Latin, the word “mondo” can signify “the Universe” as well as “the World.”) The Anima Mundi is the invisible aspect of Mother Nature, where physical reality is her visible vehicle. For Paul Foster Case, the figure is hermaphroditical, the scarf not protecting a lady’s modesty but concealing male genitalia. In the realm of symbolism, a dual-sexed figure is given the amoeba-like property of being able to reproduce itself without recourse to the medium of fertilization from without. That is one way of presenting the teaching. Crowley, in his Thoth deck, availed himself of another way of presenting it. The symbolism of his Trump 21 (here named The Universe) is of a nude woman dancing with a giant serpent within a circle on which the constellations of zodiac are imprinted. It mirrors an ancient Greek creation myth. Robert Graves (Greek Myths) explains:

“In the beginning, Eurynome, the Goddess of All Things, rose naked from Chaos, but found nothing substantial for her feet to rest upon, and therefore divided the sea from the sky, dancing lonely upon the waves.”

Her gyrations bring into being Orphion, the Great Serpent and they dance together until he fertilizes her after which the goddess gives birth to the physical universe. That is the event pictured on the Thoth card. The Marseilles tarot, and those tarots adhering to its pattern, present the teaching as already described – the dancing figure, being an hermaphrodite, fertilizes itself, and as a result gives birth to All, that is, to everything occupying space on the plane of physical existence.

THOTH world 21  21-monde  21T 1835

Paul Christian, with typical overkill, gives the Trump the motto ‘All in All’. He also renames the card (his Trump titles deserve an article to themselves). He calls it the Crown of the Magi, the laurel wreath being presented as a chaplet, evidently waiting for a head to set itself upon. True to the dictum “change of name invokes change of image”, someone took Christian literally and redrew the wreath as a regular crown. trump 21 Had the nomenclature caught on, the picture on Trump 21 might have ended up looking nothing like the one we are used to. Thankfully, it was rarely adopted in Christian’s day, and as soon as his influence waned (which it did rapidly among all English-speaking nations) the title Crown of the Magi disappeared from the tarot lexicon and thereafter ceased to have any impact on later revisionings of The World’s design.

Soon after I commenced my study of the tarot, at the end of the 1950s, I read an article on numerology in which the number twenty-one was extolled as The Crown of the Magi. The reference mystified me. Even though by then I knew the names and numbers of the Major Arcana cards, I had no reason to associate the title with Trump 21. It wasn’t until three decades later that I discovered Christian and his distinctive, highly individual interpretations of the tarot Trumps. Today his influence lingers through the proliferation of so-called Egyptian tarots – tarots whose Christian symbolism has been replaced by scenes from Egyptian mythology; wherein, to cite one example among many, Typhon is substituted for the Devil. When I turned my attention to the tarot teachings disseminated by the Church of Light, I entered the world of Egyptian tarots that, up till that time, had been a closed book to me. It took me a while to wake up to the fact that much of what C.C. Zain has to say in his Sacred Tarot relating to the cards is taken with very little alteration from the works of Paul Christian. At that point, I began to investigate Christian himself, no easy task as I couldn’t find an English translation of any of his books, and I don’t speak French.

But to return to the World card. What bearing, if any, does identifying the figure on the card with the Anima Mundi have on the occult interpretation of the Trump? It is simply that the soul that has passed the judgment of the Angel Gabriel (Trump 20) and been allowed to proceed to Heaven is identified with the figure on the card. That soul is now free to dance as it will, where it will, so long as it remains within the compass of the laws that order the universe. At this stage of development, the soul has a natural desire to do this because in essence it is now one with the Anima Mundi. In this ‘heaven’ everyone is doing exactly what they want to do, which happens to be precisely what Divine Intelligence requires them to be doing.

The ‘Secret Titles’ of Trump 21 are: Absolutum, Adaptatio Operis Magni, and Omnipotentia Naturalis. They refer to the Metaphysical Absolute (which is a theologian’s way of referring to God), Adaption of the Great Work, and the Omnipotence of Nature. The first title needs no elucidation, save the pointing out that esoterically the card signals a clear run though of power, from God to the Anima Mundi, the Soul of the World, and from thence to the human soul. The connecting thread identifies all three as representing the same potency manifesting on successive levels of being.

‘Adaption of the Great Work’ does need some explaining, however. Firstly, one needs to be aware of what the Great Work means to the occult fraternity. In a word, it is self-perfection – perfection on all three levels, the physical, the psychic/mental, and the spiritual. Obviously, perfection on this scale is a vast undertaking and occultists don’t imagine that it can be achieved in one lifetime. On the contrary, the teaching is that it takes three lives to make an adept. Only once they have attained adepthood can an individual set out on the quest for perfection in all three worlds. There are no guidelines as to how many lives the soul of an adept must endure before the Great Work can be brought to completion; each case in unique in that respect.

Anyone intending to go on this quest will make no real progress unless they can grasp the inner meaning of the phrase ‘the Omnipotence of Nature’, for the Great Work can only be accomplished through cooperation with Nature. The destiny of the human race was to work with Nature to bring the physical world to perfection. The current state of our planet demonstrates how far short we have fallen of that goal.

This thread flowing from God through the Anima Mundi to the human soul, this urge towards perfection operates on all souls throughout the course of each and every one of their incarnations. ‘The World’ is a school into which souls descend, espousing a body on the way, for the purpose of imbibing a series of lessons. Thousands of years ago, a mechanism for speeding up this process was fashioned, the ancients called it initiation. This is not the place to explain the rationale or technique of initiation. Any reader not already in the know is advised to take The Secret Science of Masonic Initiation by Robert Lomas as their starting point. Once the message of that book is understood, further reading matter will suggest itself to the sincere seeker. The formula of initiation is as Herman Hesse presented it: “The true vocation of man is to find his way to himself” Hesse was writing long ago, when it was still permissible to use ‘man’ to signify ‘humankind’. But what he had to say was true when he said it and remains so to this day.

So far as the tarot card The World is concerned, in the present context, as last of the numbered Trumps, it signifies the end of the path – ‘end’ in both senses of the word: ‘to complete’ and ‘the goal’. It describes the point at which the soul is ready for its coronation, when it shall at last wear with pride the Crown of the Magi fashioned from pure Gold. The other numbered Trumps (1-20) represent staging posts along the way. All must be met and the trials they represent overcome before the Crown of the Magi can be set upon the adept’s head. A common mistake is to assume that the soul will visit these waystations in sequence, starting with Trump 1 and proceeding in linear fashion to Trump 20. Not so. As I have said, the journey to Trump 21 is unique to every soul. For one thing, a soul may fail the test represented by, let us say, The Hermit and be brought back to it again and again in the same life, or over the course of several lives, until the lesson is learnt. Another soul, sailing through the Hermit’s test with alacrity, may then stumble at the next hurdle, whatever that might be. The once born, as the uninitiated are known in occult terminology, might not be called upon to face every one of the twenty tests in a single life. As already stated, the uninitiated move forward at a slower rate. The initiated soul, on the other hand, is almost guaranteed all twenty encounters in the present incarnation.

At the higher levels of occultism, The World symbolizes the soul at the end of its wanderings, when, having passed through the twenty waystations successfully, it reaps its final reward. So much for the numbered Trumps but what of the unnumbered card, the Fool? It represents a fork in the road, one branch of which leads to The World and the possibility of Heaven, the other leading back to Earth, the physical plane with all that that entails. The Fool and that fork in the road, Furka, as one occult school of thought terms it, is the subject of the next article.

World-Universe-Cosmos, Part 1

by Tony Willis    

In the predictive tarot, Trump 21, The World, has an uncomplicated meaning. Gypsy lore sums up the energies mediated by the card in glowing terms: Reward, Success, Fulfilment, and Triumph. The instructions continue by explaining that if the card is surrounded by other fortunate omens, the inquirer has nothing to fear; success is immanent and nothing now can prevent it from arriving in her life. But if The World is reversed or sandwiched between cards of an adverse disposition, there will be difficulties to overcome before the fruits of the inquirer’s labors can be enjoyed in their fullness; or as another account puts it, “Struggles and Obstacles before Achievement.”

As it is the last card of the numbered sequence, Trump 21 can be assigned the keyword Completion, signaling a satisfactory ending to a project or piece of work. Esoterically, the emphasis is on triumphant conclusion and the realization of aspirations, significances we will return to shortly.

Frank Lind’s delineations are typical of the late nineteenth- early twentieth-century readings of the card: “Worldly success. Material gain. Joy of living, indulgence in worldly delights; bliss amidst abundance; perfect contentment. Distant travelling.” The choice of words is striking – “worldly success”, “worldly delights” – linking the meanings to the card’s title, The World. Mention of distant travelling intimates that the expanded significance of this phrase would, in poetic terms, be “you will travel the world.”

tdm world 21  bota trump 21  21-the-universe-golden-dawn-magical-tarot

In recent times, the title of the card has evolved. On the Tarot de Marseilles, and in other early tarots, the card is called the World. The Golden Dawn school of tarot refers to it as The Universe, and other decks have taken up this nomenclature. Near the end of the twentieth century, I began to see the name The Cosmos appearing in some decks. There are reasons for these changes, some sound, some not, and it may help readers to grasp what is going on if those reasons are elucidated.

We need to start by looking into what people of the Renaissance understood by the term ‘world’. In this context they meant, first and foremost, the Earth. In 1410/1425, when the first tarots were produced, it was generally believed that the Earth was flat, which is to say, it was “all on one plane”. This flatness notwithstanding, the Sun, Moon, planets and stars circled the Earth, occupying a space designated by the science of the time as “the celestial region”. The Earth constituted one level of experience; above it came the celestial level, and above that lay the divine level. This structure remains the basis for the ways tarot cards are interpreted, a structure we have encountered many times in our passage through the Trumps. Traditionally, occultists give cards subtly different meanings on the physical, psychic and spiritual levels. (‘Psychic’ here corresponds to ‘soul’ and to ‘celestial’ – though occultist prefer the term ‘astral’ when referring to levels.)

In fourteen hundred and ninety-two, an old rhyme tells us, Columbus sailed the ocean blue – and discovered the Americas, sounding the death-knell for flat-earthism. From today’s perspective, it is all too easy to imagine that, with the Earth proved not to be flat – to be, most likely, a sphere – the way people regarded  Nature, geography, and science in general would be turned on its head. Sure enough, opinions and attitudes changed over time but they did so with painful slowness. In the sixteenth century, Shakespeare and his contemporaries spoke of the Earth as a globe; maps began to be drawn on the basis that the Earth was an orb. Nevertheless, the Earth did not lose its status as “the physical world” with other “worlds” hovering above it.

The Earth was the home of the Four Elements as generally presented to the

4 elements illustrations

imagination: Fire burning up a pile of sticks (or as in the accompanying illustration, as the effulgent Sun), the Water of the seas and rivers, the clouds of the Air, and Earth in all its productive fullness,rich in forests and fertile plains.The association of Trump 21 with the Four Elements is acknowledged on the Tarot de Marseilles card (and in other packs exhibiting comparable symbolism) by the representations of what are known as the Four Holy Animals at the corners of the card.

On one level the Holy Animals correspond to the evangelists and through them form a link between the physical, astral and divine worlds. The evangelists were mortal men who in their day lived and moved and had their being here on Earth; at the same time, in Christian theology, they were each designated a sign of the zodiac and each zodiac sign represents one of the Holy Animals – St. Luke was assigned the sign Taurus, the bull, St. Mark Leo, the lion, St. John Scorpio, depicted as a eagle, and St Matthew Aquarius, a man. The signs of the zodiac, being composed of fixed stars, mark the boundary between the celestial and divine levels, being situated in the former but acting as a doorway to the latter. The evangelists, therefore, offer the faithful a direct route to Heaven, rising from the material and going straight to the realm of the fixed stars with the promise of entry into the divine world laying just beyond it.

harmony of spheres ptolemy

Science at the time believed that the celestial world was composed of a series of spheres, crystalline and thus transparent, nested one within the other, the Earth at the center of the arrangement. (See illustration above.) Immediately above the Earth came the sphere of the Moon which was succeeded by the spheres of the other planets up to that named for Saturn (the trans-Saturnian planets were yet to be discovered). The final sphere was that of the fixed stars; that, however, was considered so far distant, conceptually, that the minds of very few could comprehend its true significance, and fewer still could reach the sphere of the fixed stars save by the grace of God mediated by the evangelists. On the other hand, what the Moon symbolized, what Mercury or Mars or Saturn or any of the planets symbolized, was something the human mind could grasp. On some later versions of Trump 21, the sphere of the fixed stars is depicted as an oval of what appear to be pearls around the central figure. Behind this “string of pearls” are twelve colored circles representing the signs of the zodiac. The pearls themselves stand for the pentads into which esoteric astrology divides the zodiac signs, six divisions each spanning five degrees, total (6×5) 30.

universe-21 GD    21 Universe

In the Marseille tarot, the figure dances within an oval wreath of leaves, as it does in the Builders of the Adytum and Waite-Smith decks. (See above.) However it is depicted, the oval delimits the movements of the central figure. She dances freely but within the confines of the oval. Esotericists take this to be a means of describing the freedom the soul experiences once liberation from the wheel of birth and rebirth has been obtained. At this stage of development, although the soul may do whatever it pleases, it is more than content to act within the limitations the Divine has set upon it.

As humans gained a greater understanding of the Earth’s place, first in the solar system, and then in the universe, the older view of Earth as the only world our species could ever hope to explore physically became outmoded and new insights had to be accommodated into occult philosophy in order to keep abreast of popular opinion. Accordingly, the guiding lights behind the Golden Dawn system of magick adjusted the name on the card to The Universe. I’m sure no one in the Golden Dawn thought of there being more than one universe – ‘uni’ signifying ‘one’ in Latin. Today it is common to talk in the plural, of universes, but the Victorians were not open to the idea of a plenitude of universes. Once the idea has caught on, however, another term is needed to denote everything that is manifest, or in Christian terms, everything in creation. The chosen word is ‘cosmos’ and some modern decks that have discarded the traditional Trump titles have chosen to call this Trump The Cosmos. But whatever name the card is given, it is meant to describe All, the visible and invisible divisions of existence – everything, in short, other than that portion of the Divine that remains ever unmanifest.

A hundred years ago, Charles Platt, in The Art of Card Fortune Telling, set out this prime occult tenet in the following terms: “The Twenty-first card . . . is known as the Universe; but it does not refer to this par­ticular world of our own, which is often carelessly called the universe, but the entire Universe, Creation, everything that is or can be.”

Occult teaching aids frequently use the words ‘universe’ and ‘cosmos’ as if they were interchangeable. Some esoteric schools favor the first expression, others the second. Thus, we find Thomas Burgoyne (in his unoriginal book on the tarot) explaining: “Man is a microcosm – a universe within himself.” “Man,” he continues, “in his physical body, is a perfect epitome of the planet upon which he lives, while the celestial worlds find their perfect expression in his soul.” In two sentences, Burgoyne presents the esoteric view of the relation of the microcosm to the macrocosm succinctly and accurately. And he intends “universe” to be understood in exactly the sense proposed by Charles Platt. (We must forgive Burgoyne, a man of a former age, for his use of “man” to denote human kind; this way of talking was considered normal in his day.)

At about the same time as Burgoyne was writing, a scion of a different occult school, was informing his readers that “The cosmos is not dead matter but a living presence”, where Burgoyne and his like would have preferred the term “universe”.

The design of the Tarot de Marseilles World card presents the universe/cosmos as a living entity: she is female, and therefore capable of giving birth; she gambols within the confines of a leafy garland, identified with the laurel victor’s crown, a symbol predating the foundation of the Roman Empire; her progress is watched over and supported by revered representatives of the Four Elements, the four Holy Creatures associated with the Heavenly Throne of the Almighty. (See illustration.) Contemplation of this image draws the mind schooled in Christo-Judaic symbolism toward the notion that “the universe is built and ordered under the rule of sacred law”, and from thence to contemplation of the essential nature of the Intelligence that ordained the universe’s construction and rational ordering.

throne of god

In the concluding part of this article, I will examine the train of thought behind one of the esoteric titles of Trump 21, the Crown of the Magi.

The Day of Judgment

by Tony Willis    

The earliest examples of tarot cards come from fifteenth century Italy. Inevitably these decks show images pertaining to Christianity. One such image is to be found on Trump 20, and, though the card generally has the word Judgment printed on it, it is actually named either The Day of Judgment or The Angel of Judgment. In the Builders of the Adytum version of the card, the angelic figure, identified with Gabriel, blows a trumpet that has a flag attached to it. The symbol on the flag, a red cross on a white background, can be found on a banner in the hand of Christ as he rises from the tomb in numerous paintings of the resurrection. (See below.)



In the story of Christ, the resurrection occurs toward the end of the narrative, to be followed by ten or so brief appearances to Mary Magdalene and the Apostles, and culminating with His assentation into heaven. According to Christian theology, everyrw judgement-00 human soul follows in the footsteps of the Master Jesus; every one of us is born, lives our lives, dies, and then waits upon resurrection, due to occur on the day of Judgment, and sometimes referred to as the Last Day. On the day of Judgment, the archangel Gabriel will blow his trumpet, graves will open, and humanity will rise up ready to be judged. Have we lived well, or selfishly? Have we done good in our lives, even to those that hate us, as scripture dictates, or have we acted evilly, mindful only of our own interests at the expense of those of our fellow humans or to the detriment of the planet as whole? This is the scene we are confronted with in early tarots, on the Tarot de Marseilles Trump and others, including the illustration on the Waite-Smith card.

It is Christian belief that the soul deemed to have lived a good life will pass on to heaven while the soul that is found wanting will be consigned to hell. The esoteric teaching is more humane, and it is this esoteric teaching that is reflected in the tarot; for the cards coming after Judgement are not images of Hell and Heaven. In the Marseille tarot they are The World and The Fool, as they are in all published tarots prior to the appearance of the Waite-Smith deck in 1909. The Fool is not numbered zero: it is numberless and considered by a large body of tarot enthusiasts to follow The World. Art historians who have spent time looking into the imagery of the tarot have concluded that the image of The World card, as we have it today, is a mutation of an image of Christ enclosed within a mandorla (a roughly elliptical frame) presiding over paradise in the form of a new Jerusalem, a walled city on top of a hill. If these conclusions are correct, this would equate Trump 21 with the Heaven of the Christian paradigm, but The Fool, however one cares to interpret it, shows no sign of corresponding to Hell.

The esoteric view of Judgment does not postpone the weighing of the soul until the Last Day. It believes instead that souls are judged at the end of each incarnation. Those passing the test go on to the greater glory represented in the tarot by The World. Those who fail the test are sent back into incarnation to try again to perfect and discipline their souls and also to expiate wrongs done in the life just quitted. Far more fail this test than pass it. Thus we find the French magus, Eliphas Levi, moving The Fool to position number 21, on the grounds that most people encounter The Fool long before they finally attain the perfected state that will allow them to enter into the experience symbolized by The World. Though Levi shifted the position of The Fool, he did not renumber it. That change came later, possibly instituted by Levi’s pupil Paul Christian. In fact, tarots that number The Fool 21 and The World 22 are in the minority, even on the continent where Levi’s correspondences are more honored than those lying behind the Golden Dawn tarot card interpretations are.

tarot-vision-afbeeldingen-174     tdm world 21

The occult teachings attached to the Judgment card can be summed up in three phrases: the Protection of Divine Forces, Moral Rebirth, and Change of Condition. The Divine Forces referred to are the active wing of the Occult Hierarchy we encountered when looking into the hidden significance of The Moon tarot card. Their presence here reminds the student that, even if the Angel of Judgment requires the soul to return to the physical plane and take on matter once again, the process is not essentially a punishment; it is, on the contrary, a fresh start, another opportunity to live a life suffused with good deeds and charitable actions, and perhaps a chance to put right wrongs perpetrated in a previous life.

Those souls freed from the wheel of birth and rebirth experience a moral rebirth; for once judgment has been passed upon them, they move to the final stage in the quest for the spiritual perfection. But whether the soul is moving forward to the stage of evolution identified with the tarot’s World, or sideways to the transitionary experience symbolized by the Fool, it necessarily undergoes a distinct change of condition. The last two phases we will find reflected, at a lower level of human experience, in the meanings ascribed to Trump 20 by the predictive tarot.

The so-called secret titles for Judgment are, in Latin: Attarctio Divina, Transformation Astralis, and Mutationes in Tempore – Divine Attraction, Astral Transformation, and Changes in Time. The first flags up the fact that the Divine continually attracts the human soul as the magnet attracts iron filings. This may seem hard to believe at times when so many humans are reported on the daily news as acting inhumanely, but such outward seeming is what protects the greater occult secrets: by reading surface events only the uninitiated are led meekly away from the door to the sanctuary and by this means, the higher truths are insulated from their touch.

The term Astral Transformation touches on a deeper esoteric teaching regarding karma and reincarnation. The West has an imperfect understanding of both. The part of the teaching that concerns us here relates to the conditions required to guarantee that a soul no longer needs to incarnate. It is not the body that reincarnates, obviously. The body dies and decomposes. What survives, according to occult philosophy, are the soul’s astral and spiritual components. Of these, the latter is not only indestructible but immutable. On the other hand, the astral component changes constantly, as life progresses, and between incarnations. As the soul is perfected and disciplined, its astral component becomes more rarified, until, after much labor, it dissolves entirely. The body – the center of our outer sense-nature – gone, and the astral body – the center of our inner sense-nature – gone, all that remains is spirit. Entering fully into spirit, human consciousness encounters a state of timelessness, though time evidently exists. To those of us still in incarnation, this is the esoteric equivalent of the physicist’s Schrodinger’s Cat paradox. Or as one more knowledgeable than I am on these matters has put it: “On the physical level [Trump 20] represents the very structure of the dimension of time, so difficult to accept for those who have not reached the end of the long road.”

In the nineteenth century, the favored delineation for the Judgment card became “change of position.” It arises out of the interpretation of the Christian day of judgment as a leading to a definite move imposed on the soul; for judgment being passed, it must either ascend to Heaven or descend to Hell. On its own, the card could not be taken as an indication of the direction of travel; this might be up or down depending on the lie of the other cards in the spread; though should Judgment be reversed, it was presumed to portend an unavoidable fall from grace.

20-the-judgement1 Arcane-Arcana-20-jugement-judgement

Charles Platt, in The Art of Card Fortune Telling, sees the card exactly in these terms: “a change of position, or if reversed, loss of position. It will be noted that the change of position shown by the upright card can be for better or worse.”

Book T, the Golden Dawn’s tarot manual, says that Trump 20 signifies “Renewal, Result, Determination of a Matter; Reversed: Postponement of Result, Delay, Matter re-opened later.” This reading of the card derives from the idea of a sentence administered by a court against whose verdict there is no appeal. In G.D. lore Trump 20 is assumed to indicate a matter that has been determined once and for all. The delineation can be traced back to Etteilla, who allots to the card the meaning Outcome.

Sepharial takes up and embroiders the metaphysical aspect of the card: “Spiritual awakening, conversion; moral regeneration, new regime”, adding significances that blend the spiritual with the material, “Genius, aspiration, activity, utility, work, occupation; mission; office; elevation.” “Mission”, for instance, is here to be understood as denoting a divine mission or at the very least one divinely inspired, whether the subject of the reading recognizes it in those terms or not. A similar interpretation is intended for “aspiration” also. What Sepharial does not make explicit is that any mission or aspiration (or activity or piece of work) not divinely inspired is doomed to collapse, hence Platt’s pronouncement, atypical for a tarot Trump, that “the change of position shown by the upright card can be for better or worse.”

Other tarot masters also stress the card’s metaphysical facet, notably Frank Lind: “Awakening, Rebirth, Spiritual advancement by suffering.”

Minetta offers a fascinating delineation, which we should heed since it represents the distillation of a professional cartomancer’s perception of the Trump in countless readings all mainly concerned with mundane rather than spiritual matters: “The effort to overcome difficulties, the desire for success; aspiration, duty, response of conscience; exaltation, new enterprises, and a change in the sphere of life and work.” This interpretation, married to Lind’s, encompasses the two modes Trump 20 can assume in a predictive tarot reading.

Tarot numerology is a quite separate study from the usual form of the subject, namely that almost invariably focusing on the properties of the digits 1 to 9. The tarot numerologist counts, not in 9s but in 22s, each number from 1 to 22 having its own unique qualities.

One initiate has spoken of the number 20, interpreted according to the cannon of tarot numerology, in these terms: “This number has a peculiar interpretation: the awakening of new purpose, new plans, new ambitions; the call to action, but always for some great purpose, cause or duty. It is not a material number and consequently is a doubtful one as far as worldly success is concerned. If used in relation to a future event, it denotes delays, hindrances to one’s plans, which can only be conquered through the development of the spiritual side of the nature.”

From this exposition can be deduced the degree to which the energies associated with the Judgment card teeter on a knife’s edge, liable to fall either to the right or the left, signalling a dramatic fall from grace or dispersing success, happiness and fulfilment.

Lord of Light and Life

by Tony Willis   

The tarot is like a jewel with a dozen facets. There is a predictive tarot, a psychological tarot, a mythological tarot and an esoteric tarot, to name but four. It is possible to make readings with the predictive or psychological tarots while happily ignorant that such a thing as the esoteric tarot exists. Even so, the esoteric tarot impinges on the predictive tarot and for this reason I have included examinations of both in this series of articles.

From what I can see, the predictive tarot is something of dying art, its rationale and procedures often not understood or, worse, misunderstood even by those attempting to use the cards for divination. It takes a particular cast of mind to fathom how meaningful interpretations are to be extracted from a card that might have as many as seven distinct connotations. A recently published book gives us insight into how the process works. In Giuseppe Maria Mitelli and the Tarocchino Bolognese by Giordano Berti (Rinacimento Italian Style Art, 2017), there is a section written by the experienced cartomancer Greta Boni Dori. In it, Mrs Boni Dori provides numerous pointers as what goes on in the trained mind of a reader of predictive tarot. The Tarocchino Bolognese departs from the symbolism of most other tarots at times, and this alteration yields some meanings inconsistent with those that students of the Tarot de Marseilles or the Waite-Smith images are used to. Nevertheless, there is much we can learn from Mrs Boni Dori’s accounts of the significances of the Tarocchino Bolognese Trumps.

Concerning the Sun, for instance, she states first its name, Sun, and its keyword, By Day. The use of keywords requires an article all to itself. For the present, I will say only that this keyword relates, among other things, to the sun’s rays, and by extension, to the shedding of light on things both in the literal and metaphorical senses. Thus we find Mrs Boni Dori explaining that the card “represents an invitation to make things clear”; or as an alternative, that “it announces that light will soon replace darkness”, in other words that what is obscure at the time of the reading will shortly be made clear, as a consequence of which Mrs Boni Dori assures the person consulting the cards “you are likely to find yourself feeling freer than you have in a while”.

Mrs Boni Dori goes further and describes the type of person denoted by the Sun card: “An energetic person, vital, focused, passionate and at the same time rational. An intellectual, a designer, a writer, a clerk.” Every one of these meanings is linked to the root-idea of the physical sun – the sun’s vitality suggesting passion in the sense of enthusiasm for life, an appetite for action concerning any endeavor the individual forms an attachment to. Take a moment to go through Mrs Boni Dori’s meanings and to trace them back to the root-idea. If you are able to do this readily within a few moments, then you have it in you to be successful in interpreting the tarot predictively.

imageThe Tarocchino Bolognese Sun card shows Apollo standing upright, a golden aureole around his head, a lyre in his hand. In classical mythology Apollo was a Sun-god and one of his attributes was the lyre. The scene on the Tarot de Marseilles Sun card has the solar orb, a human face inscribed upon it, in its upper register; what might be drops of dew appear to be falling from the sun. In the lower register, two children, wearing only collars and loincloths, reach out to one another with, behind them, a low brick wall. The difference between the two images will generate differences of interpretation.

A.E. Waite, writing as ‘Grand Orient’, states that Trump 19 signifies “Full light, intellectual and material”, which is a long-winded way of saying Enlightenment and is comparable with what Mrs Boni Dori expects her readers to understand by her keyword, “By Day”.

tarot_logo  bota trump 19  knapp 19

One set of Gypsy meanings gives an alternative keyword, Unveiling, also indicating that something unknown is about to brought out into the open. That this revelation will have beneficial by-products is made clear by the phrase the gypsies attach to “Unveiling”, which implies that a solution to the inquirer’s current problem is at hand. In the same document, the message is repeated more emphatically, for we are told that the card indicates that “there will soon be an improvement” and signifies an “early clearing up” of difficulties.

However, since the children on Trump 19 appear to be dancing with joy, other meanings were added to the card’s portfolio. S.L. Mathers takes the Trump to signify “Happiness, Content, and Joy”, and because the children a presumed be boy and girl, authorities such as Papus and Waite give the card the meaning “Marriage”. Papus also associates the card with “Earthly Happiness”. Waite, making a fusion of both interpretations, declares that it is a “card of earthly happiness, but not attained individually.” Hence the Sun card comes to be associated with the idea of a happy marriage and since the words “earthly”, “material” and “physical” are close cousins conceptually, it is sometimes made a sign of a fruitful marriage, too. Esoterically, the Trump is associated with fertility, as we shall see in a moment.

Treating the picture on the card metaphorically, Frank Lind suggests “bright prospects” as a suitable meaning for the card. Translating “earthly” into “material”, Lind goes on to associate Trump 19 with material gain on the one hand and, having brought “gain” into the picture, to associate it with the more rarefied idea of “Paradise regained” on the other.

The card’s so-called Secret Titles are: the True Light, Philosophical Gold, and Prolific Truth (which is where we reconnect with Fertility). Symbolically, the sun represents the True Light. We see clearly by its rays, whereas the moon’s light presents a far more ambiguous scene to our senses, a dimmer vista in which it is difficult to distinguish a dog from a wolf.

le_jugementIn Western alchemy, the sun’s metal is gold. The purpose of spiritual alchemy is to transmute the leaden state of the untempered soul into pure untarnished gold. Trump 19, representing a step on the soul’s journey through the tarot that brings it very close to the end of the process, fittingly symbolizes spiritual purification from an esoteric point of view. Whether the soul’s cleansing is complete after this bout of spiritual purification is something that will be tested when it moves to the experience denoted by the next Trump, the Day of Judgment, where it will be weighed in the balance and have justice meted out to it according to the results of that assessment.

The term Prolific Truth, where the noun is juxtaposed with an adjective not normally assigned to it, may seem more impenetrable to the uninitiated. At the most basic level, it simply means that, when a truth dawns on us, the realization does not throw light on one piece of data only but will illumine a great many other aspects of our personal world-view, since all facts and opinions are interconnected in the realm of the psyche.

Another version of the “Secret Titles” retains Fruitful Truth and the Gold of the Philosophers but posits Human Virtue as the third factor, situating it on the level of soul. To understand this better, let us look at the action occult science says the energy mediated by The Sun card assumes on successive invisible levels.

One authority has written: “On the spiritual level the Sun represents the liberating power . . . the dynamic union of above and below.” At once, the thread connecting the esoteric and predictive meanings is blindingly apparent. The liberating power is, in one manifestation, an instance of the old adage “The truth will set you free” in action. At the same time it strikes a note identical with Mrs Boni Dori’s “you are likely to find yourself feeling freer than you have in a while”. The phrase “the dynamic union of above and below” appears at the predictive level as “Fruitful Marriage”.

The text continues, “At the level of the soul [The Sun] represents the affinity and balance between knowledge and emotion and their synthesis, the essential prelude to any harmonious conquest.” What is here called “conquest” refers to the adjudication the soul is about to face when it enters the spiritual stage of development represented by Trump 20, Judgment. If there is insufficient harmony between the individual’s knowledge and emotion – intellect and feeling – the soul is sent back to repeat some or all of the steps to self-knowledge, given another chance to pass through the purifying fire that will render the soul not only wholesome but complete.

“On the physical level,” we are told, The Sun “represents the balanced reconciliation of complementary energies which, instead of attacking and trying to overcome one another, find the path of creative and constructive synthesis.” The boy and the girl on the card correspond to the “complementary energies” of the text that, by working together in harmony, “find the path of creative and constructive synthesis”. On the physical level, this works out as a Happy Marriage and a Fertile Union. The remark can refer to the interaction of two people, in love or business, or to the harmonization of the conscious and subconscious minds which in the average person are locked in a state muted antagonism.

The truths of spiritual alchemy have been known to initiates of all nations and to all schools of the instituted mysteries for thousands of years. Thus we find Lao Tzu (China, sixth century BCE) writing: “If you want to eliminate the suffering in the world, then eliminate all that is dark and negative in yourself. Truly the greatest gift you have to give is your own self-transformation.”

Ah, Moon of My Delight

by Tony Willis   

From the relative uniformity of significance we encountered when reviewing Trump 17, The Star, where we found most predictive tarotists associating the card with Hope, a Promising Future, or a Fresh Start, we move to the varied, sometimes contradictory, meanings assigned by nineteenth and early twentieth century card-readers to The Moon.

The foremost significance associated with Trump 18 over those two hundred and fifty years was Deception, in its various forms. How it came to have that meaning is explained in a note that forms part of a collection of Gypsy delineations published around 1925. The first comment is “Darkness – ambush in the shadow”, and the second “Obscurity, unclear business. If reversed, be careful in your undertakings.” As the Book of Genesis tells us, the moon rules over the night, a time of darkness. When one is operating in the dark, one is more susceptible to ambush and also to error, for in the gloom one may mistake a bathrobe hanging on the back of a door for the forbidding shape of a lurking intruder. By this symbolism, the card comes to indicate others taking advantage of us and, as an alternative, our own errors perpetrated out of ignorance of the true facts of a situation. Both are covered by the Gypsy meanings: ambush in the shadow, and unclear business.

Charles Platt, in The Art of Card Fortune Telling (c. 1920), informs his readers that the Moon “represents hidden dangers, deception, error of judg­ment, and so on.” The emphasis is Platt’s. For the card upside down, Platt parts company to some extent with the Gypsy tradition. “Reversed,” he tells us “it makes the deception our own”, signifying that the inquirer will come to trouble or difficulty through his or her own deceit or falsehood.

It was common in that era to find these key phrases attached to Trump 18: Deception, False Friends, Secret Foes. They appear in C.C. Zain’s The Sacred Tarot (written 1918, published in book form in 1936), and are repeated, with minor adjustments, by Frank Lind, writing at the end of the 1940s: Deception. False friends. Foolish talk. Quarrelling. Disappointment.

Sepharial, in The Kabala of Numbers, thirty or so years earlier than that, assigns to the Moon the meanings: Darkness, doubt, hesitation, negation, imbecility, lunacy, an adverse change. Minetta, a contemporary of Sepharial and Waite, casting her net a little wider, has the card represent “Dissipation of psychic force, insanity, sickness, treachery, deception, uncertainty, error, and false friends.” “Insanity” should come as no surprise as the moon had long been associated with lunacy, a term derived from the Latin for moon, luna, and picked up on by Sepharial as well. “Sickness” may raise an eyebrow; however, Minetta earned her living from reading cards and we must therefore suppose that she had found Trump 18 to appear often enough in a spread pointing to an illness for her to include that meaning in the array she published for the edification of the general public. (Card Reading: a Practical Guide, 1913.)

Juan Eduardo Cirlot’s A Dictionary of Symbols (published in English in 1958 but greatly reliant, where the tarot is concerned, on the work of Oswald Wirth [e.g., Le Tarot des Imagiers du Moyen Age, 1927]) gives the keywords for The Moon as error, arbitrary fantasy, and imaginative sensitivity. Earlier still, Papus, in Le Tarot Divinataire (1909), had stated that The Moon pointed to the presence of Concealed enemies and Danger, later in the text speaking of Deceptions and Deceit. Evidently, the association with Trump 18 and Deception goes back a long way.

As we have seen, The Moon in reverse could be thought of as warning the inquirer to take care in all her undertakings, particularly with regard to the subject of any question she had put to the tarot. Alternatively, the center of attention is flipped over, and the source of the deception becomes the inquirer herself rather than some outside agency. The book of instruction that comes packaged with The Cagliostro Tarot offers a third possibility for The Moon reversed: Darkness Clearing Away. It suggests that the dim twilight of a befogged condition will soon be lifting, and in doing so continues to play with a metaphor we first encountered when looking at the Gypsy delineations – Darkness – and taking the same view of the card’s reversed meaning as the continental gypsies are supposed to have done.

What A.E. Waite (writing as Grand Orient) has to say on the matter is instructive. Waite associates the card with Half-light (reflecting Paul Christian’s name for the card – Twilight), mutation (since the lunar orb represents Change), intellectual uncertainty, the region of illusion; false-seeming. The combination of mental uncertainty, the half-light, and illusion is far from promising and aligns with the ambushes, snares, involved and obscure dealings, trickery, and concealed dangers we have already encountered. Madeline Montalban, one-time queen of the long-running tarot column in Prediction magazine, associated the upright card with illusion, agreeing with Waite in this. For the reversed card, she favored delusion, seeing the upright meaning as denoting an outside influence and the reversed one as implying that the inquirer was having a problem seeing the truth of a situation. On the one hand this echoes Minetta’s ‘insanity’(Minetta doesn’t distinguish between the normal and upside down positions of the Trumps). On the other, it is a restatement of Platt’s description of the Moon’s reversal – “it makes the deception our own – the enquirer will come to trouble or difficulty through his or her own deceit or falsehood.” – with a somewhat different emphasis on the manner in which the deception will manifest in the inquirer’s life.

Both the Bible and astrological lore associate the moon with the nighttime. Some older texts on the tarot go further, making a connection first between night and sleep and then between sleep and dreams. Fred Gettings, in his The Book of Tarot (1973) calls Trump 18 “the card of Dreams”. In certain circumstances, Trump 18 can refer to either sleep or the dream state when it appears in a reading.

moon jj swissSome older versions of the Moon card, depict a young man serenading his ladylove by moonlight. Evening was a time to pursue courtship when I was a child. A popular song of the era began “By the light of the silvery moon,/I want to spoon./To my honey, I’ll croon love’s tune.” Thus is pointed up the fact that an often overlooked meaning for Trump 18 is romance, which can, itself, in its early stages, be a form of illusion. Who has not worn those metaphorical rose-tinted spectacles at some time or other?

In some cultures the moon was used as an epithet for the beloved. It appears in that form in the 74th verse of FitzGerald’s translation of the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam which begins “Ah, Moon of my delight.”

There is a fabled method of reading the tarot known as the Menkarian system. It is supposed to reveal the type of work that will bring the inquirer happiness, esteem and at the very least a living wage, but often more substantial material rewards. It is said that, if the final card left on the table at the end of the reading is The Moon, the inquirer would make a fine romantic novelist or writer of screenplays having the same theme.

In other circumstances, the Moon card can indicate a waiting period, even a necessary period of fallowness. Just as, in former centuries, fields that had yielded produce for three or four years were allowed to lay fallow for a whole twelve months to replenish the nutrients taken out of the soil by the agricultural process, the human mind needs also to be rested from conscious thought in order that it might recharge and replenish its psychic energies. Sleep is one method of causing the conscious mind to rest. A number of scientific studies have been carried out showing the debilitating effects of lack of sleep. Psychologists believe that valuable work is being done by the unconscious mind during sleep, integrating the experiences absorbed during the day, attempting to make sense of them. Dreams are supposed to reflect the unconscious mind’s efforts in that direction; that is why psychiatrists find them so interesting. So we see that those old tarot textbooks linking sleep and dreams to the Moon card were not so far off the mark.

With this wide spread of significances – deception in all its forms, errors of judgment, quarrelling, disappointment, sleep, dreams, romance, fallowness – the Moon is one of the hardest cards in the deck to interpret correctly in a reading. Thankfully, in many instances, context will clarify which meaning applies. If the question is about a love affair and the Moon appears adjacent to fortunate or generally beneficent cards then it speaks favorably of romance. But if a relative is harrying the inquirer into signing a document, the Moon asks that said relative’s motives be scrutinized with great care.

Trump18HTM  waite_moon_large  moon

When we turn to the so-called Secret Titles of the card, we find that the first is Twilight. Tellingly, a French definition of twilight is: “that period when it is not possible to distinguish a dog from a wolf”. It was in France that the design for the card took on the form we are familiar with from the Waite-Smith and BOTA tarots, and the dozens more that mimic them. It is at this stage that the dog and the wolf are added to the arrangement. The outer meaning of this title is that, as we have seen, the card denotes a time in one’s life when it is not possible to work out with any certainty who is a friend and who is an enemy or false friend. The esoteric meaning points us to liminal experiences as well as giving big clues as to how certain occult limins (thresholds) can be traversed.

18-moon-arcanum-latin titles

Once over these thresholds, the adept is in a position to make contact with the Hidden Hierarchy, the Masters, as some disciplines call them, the Just Men Made Perfect, as they are referred to by certain other mystery schools. Fittingly, Hidden Hierarchy is the next secret title we encounter. The two final secret titles touch on the meaning of the card in the predictive tarot, echoing phrases we are already familiar with. One is Hidden Enemies; the other is Hidden Hazard. The latter is generally found in manuals teaching tarot-reading in the form of such keywords as Danger and Hidden Obstacle.

These terms also have deeper significances. To understand what these are, we must take them in reverse order: Hidden Obstacle, Hidden Enemies, Hidden Hierarchy. In order to reach the Hidden Hierarchy, the student must first overcome the unseen, unnoticed or disguised obstacle. Should the student successfully navigate this hazard, she must then be on the alert for enemies masquerading as friends. The keys to the limins are closely guarded secrets. Though much has been written about passing these thresholds, there is hardly one in a thousand who, having read the instructions, has comprehended them. Of these, not one in a hundred will put the knowledge to good use.

Despite books like Astral Doorways by J.H. Brennan (Thoth Publications, 1996)teaching in broad outline how to cross the lesser thresholds and the countless hints scattered through the later works of Gareth Knight, there are few among the uninitiated who understand what way-markers are or how they are used. In the study of the occult tarot, once Trump 17, The Star, is reached, the focus becomes fixed on the Astral Plane. Remember that ‘astral’ comes from the Latin for star, ‘astra’. The first laws of the Astral an occult student is required to get to grips with are those governed by the physical moon, whose motion influences the astral tides in much the same way it does the tides of Earth’s oceans and the cyclical matting patterns of many marine creatures.

Many students of the occult are aware that the tarot Trumps can act as astral doorways, but to know that such a doorway exists is one thing; to have the technical skill to pass through it and cross over its threshold in such a way as to find oneself in the correct sector of that vast ocean of psychic energy known as the Astral Plane is quite another. And yet the clues are all present in the picture on Trump 18 from the Marseille tarot and any of the occult tarots. Meditation on the image will suggest ways of safely exploring the Astral Plane and learning its secrets to those seekers mentally and spiritually fitted for the experience.

Star of Hope

by Tony Willis

There is an occult tradition that, after every catastrophe, the Star of Hope rises in the east signalling that all is not lost, and that a meaningful future can be built upon the ashes of disaster. In the tarot Trumps, The Tower destroyed by Lightning is followed by The Star. Some call it the Star of Hope; almost every book on tarot divination declares it’s primary significance to be Hope. Only those, like Etteilla, who are a law unto themselves (and oddly enough A.E. Waite in The Key to the Tarot, treading in Etteilla’s footsteps) ascribe to The Star meanings incompatible with Hope.

htmfltrump17     Arcane-Arcana-17-etoile-star

The design of the Star has altered very little from the time of the Tarot de Marseille to the publication of the Rider-Waite-Smith tarot. Likewise, its divinatory significance has also remained constant.

 Arcane-Arcana-17-etoile-star          RWS_Tarot_17_Star

Continental gypsies passed down to their protégés studying the lore of the tarot this mantra for Trump 17: “It is the symbol of Hope. Tell your client not to be discouraged, however. A storm is always followed by a rainbow and fine weather.” When reversed, they took The Star to remain a fortunate omen, declaring it a sign that some piece of business or a love affair was nearing a happy conclusion.

S.L. Mathers, in his short work Fortune Telling Cards: The Tarot, its occult signification, use in fortune telling, and method of play, etc. (George Redway, 1888), assigns Trump 17 the keywords

Hope, Expectation, Bright promises; Reversed: Hopes not fulfilled, Expectations disappointed or fulfilled in a minor degree.

The British astrologer-occultist Sepharial is more pessimistic about the card’s portents when in reverse. In The Art of Card Fortune Telling, he states The Star’s meanings as

hope. Reversed: loss, theft, or privation of some sort.

The single attribution to the card when upright is what one would expect it to be. The reversed meanings appear to be an attempt to accommodate Etteilla’s interpretation of the card by shifting the significances he assigns to the upright card to its reversed position. Etteilla’s influence lingers on in some manuals on tarot reading to this day.

Crowley, as happens so often, comes closer to the pre-G.D. delineation in his Book of Thoth. There he gives it as his opinion that The Star represents:

Hope, unexpected help, clarity of vision, spiritual insight; if ill-dignified, can mean error of judgement, dreaminess, disappointment.

This is a slightly more comprehensive exposition of what Trump 17 portends than  supplied by Mathers’ in the G.D.’s tarot bible, Book T:

Hope, faith, unexpected help. But sometimes also dreaminess, deceived hope, etc.

In the 1950s, Frank Lind, having studied many of the tarot masters who had preceded him, gave the meanings for The Star as

Hope. Faith. Peace. Truth. Spiritual love. Selflessness. Promising outlook.

Sixty years on, published delineations for Trump 17 are not much different from this.

The occult titles of the card are: The Divine Powers of Nature; Nature (meaning either Nature as an impersonal force, or a personification of Nature employed as a metaphor, Mother Nature); and Fecundity. The nude figure on the card is seen by some occultists as pouring out Nature’s grace onto water and land, an act that cannot help but imbue both elements with fertility, each after its own kind.

The Latin phrases associated with The Star are Spes, Hope; Intuitio, Intuition; and Divinatio Naturalis, Natural Divination. I will start with the last of these, as it is necessary to have its meaning clear in order properly to understand the two preceding attributions. Natural divination in this context refers to astrology. The planets in their motions are a natural phenomenon. I might consult a dozen astrologers but they will all be looking at the same celestial diagram, for a horoscope is a map of the heavens set for a particular time and a particular place. Every astrologer will agree on that. But if I visit a dozen tarot readers, each will lay down a set of cards unique to the moment, the time and the place of the consultation. The same will be true of a reading made by means of geomancy or the runes. Thus astrology is designated a form of “natural divination”, which is not to suggest that the tarot or geomancy or the runes are “unnatural”. They do, however, belong to another branch of divination called sortilege, that is to say, the drawing of lots.

In Practical Occultism, Dion Fortune explains:

“In all discernment of the future three factors have to be taken into consideration and their relative influence assessed in any given case; these are, firstly, the cosmic or spiritual influences, which can be calculated astrologically because the cosmic forces correlate with the stellar rhythms; secondly, the astral conditions, which arise out of the interaction of cosmic and karmic influences; and thirdly, physical plane conditions, in which human free will and intelligence or the lack of it play a part.”

Notice that she puts astrology first. D.F. goes on to explain that although the cosmic influences playing upon any event or set of circumstances can be calculated astrologically, the astral conditions have to be discerned psychically, while the mundane conditions need to be “observed and judged by ordinary human shrewdness in the light of experience”.

Astrology operates at the cosmic level, sortilege operates at the astral or psychic level, while a specific type of intuition is at work on the mundane level. No one of these methods of seeing into the future is superior to any other; everything depends on the skill of the diviner. Some of us have the ability to interpret a horoscope, others possess the gift of clairvoyance, or second-sight as it once was known. Still others are able to apprehend the zeitgeist, the spirit of the times, or to gain insight into specific areas of it that have become their speciality. Those people I have known who were blessed with this talent were all, oddly enough, entrepreneurs or business persons and not occultists; they didn’t even have any interest in esoteric matters.

Those who can read the signs of the times are a rare breed. On the other hand, those who profess clairvoyant ability are legion. Which no one should wonder at since most humans are born with some degree of talent in this direction. I have lost track of the number of times I was told by someone, in the pre-mobile phone era, that when their landline rang, they “knew” who was calling them before they picked up the receiver. It appears to be a latent faculty of the species homo sapiens. Without the correct training, however, clairvoyance remains a hit and miss method of working. Even the partly trained can go astray. It is important to recognize on which level of the astral one is operating. For the astral comprises an entire world just as our planet, the Earth, does. On Earth, Alaska is a very different place to the Sahara and different again from the Amazonian jungle. Just so the lower astral is to be distinguished from the upper astral and the region of the upper astral concerned with emotion working in tandem with intellect is to be distinguished from the region concerned with archetypal imagery.

It is a relatively easy matter to access the lower astral. Anyone with a good degree of patience and sufficient instruction can do it. Raising consciousness higher than the lower astral is a more taxing feat, and even when a person is able to make the transition, they also need to recognize the moment when transition occurs, otherwise they will mistake the images of wish-fulfilment and idle desire for the accurate and reliable symbols of futurity.

I know scores of tarot readers, for whom the cards are a predictive medium, who can correctly divine the past history of a client they have never met before, and when they proceed to discussion of future possibilities they have good news for the inquirer– a kind and thoughtful lover is on the horizon, or a hoped-for promotion, or a move to a more spacious house in a desirable neighborhood. But they are often not reading the future, they are reading the client’s hopes for what the future will bring. These events may be present in the cards that make up the reading, so there is no deliberate fakery involved. The cards themselves are mirroring what is in the inquirer’s mind rather than accurately portraying the future. This peculiarity is an aspect of tarot reading not much spoken of and it constitutes an unexplored area so far as most students of tarot are concerned. That is because the rules of occult tarot reading are known to only a few, despite the fact that many of them lie hidden in plain sight.

The factors employed in astrology are not affected in this way, corresponding, as Dion Fortune tells, to cosmic forces, with those forces aligned in turn to spiritual influences, all of which occurs on a plane superior to the astral. The superiority of cosmic forces linked to the movement of the planets outranks astral and mundane conditions. It is the occult principle behind the practice of talisman making: a spiritual influence is attracted into the previously prepared talisman by a magickal operation carried out at a time when the configuration of planets in the heavens corresponds to the qualities with which the operator wishes to imbue the talisman. As the symbolism of an astrological chart is fixed, with the planets paralleling known and well-defined archetypes – deities, Qabalistic sephiroth, or whatever – the possibilities for error are much reduced. Even so, accurate prediction through astrology depends on the ability of the astrologer to pick her way through the seeming contradictions found in the horoscope. A Jupiter/Saturn conjunction, for instance, can manifest on the material plane in a variety of ways, so many possibilities exist that in the past whole books have been devoted to the effects of this one planetary configuration.

One tarot master has given a clear explanation of the inner significance of The Star. It depends upon the idea of The Lightning-Struck Tower, in its highest manifestation, representing that “disruptive agency, an immediate blazing revelation”. This aspect of Trump 16 was discussed in my previous article. The tarot master I referred to earlier suggests that the intervention depicted on the Tower card is one of the ways the Absolute, or primeval unity, propels itself into our everyday lives.

On the spiritual plane, this same author informs us, The Star represents the second way that the primeval unity which stands above everything, projects itself ray-like into physical reality. Whereas the Tower denotes a caustic, disruptive  agency, that mediated by The Star resembles a gentle beam of light projected into consciousness from above, descending through the planetary spheres (signified by the seven lesser stars on the card) to the mundane world. At the level of the soul, this author continues, The Star represents the logical functions of consciousness, in other words the methods of mental programming that, used correctly, allow one to edge a little closer to the truth. He concludes: “On the physical level it represents astrology”, meaning astrology as a “natural” form of divination – divination from patterns found in nature, if you prefer.

Note how all the links in this chain of thought hold together (see previous articles for the occult significances of the Devil and Tower cards). In Mystic Tarot terms, the Devil represents Logic; the Tower represents the Elimination of Logic; and the Star represents Logic Reborn, cleansed and strengthened by the ordeal it has been through. This progression means there is hope for us all for that journey is open to everyone.