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The First Septenary, Part 2

by Tony Willis     
Résumé

In Part 1, we learned that the ineffable One divides itself into Two equal and opposite complimentary potencies, Yin and Yang, Force and Form, according to the terminology employed. In the process of division, energy descends one rung on the ladder leading to manifestation. The interplay of dynamism between these Two complimentary potencies gives rise to the Three Alchemical Principles, and the interplay between the Three principles produces the Four visible Elements as well as a Fifth invisible Element, Æther or Spirit, again depending on the terminology employed.

The Emperor

The Emperor, Trump 4 in the Tarot, was associated by the tarot masters of the nineteenth century with the geometric symbol the Square. They also associated it with the equal-armed cross, although nothing is made of this in the occult literature of the period that I have perused, possibly because the equal-armed cross is also assigned to The Papess, Trump 2, and in the program of occult instruction that rigidly follows the numerical order of the Trumps, the major features of this symbol have generally been dealt with under that heading long before The Emperor’s attributes come up for consideration.

On the one hand, Trump 4 stands for the Hermetic Elements of Fire, Air, Water and Earth taken as a group; in fact, a cross with arms of equal length was used in old alchemical texts to denote the Elements as a collective. In concert with this attribution, Trump 4 also stands for the entire plane of Earth, the stage, as it were, on which the Four Elements display their most recognizable modes of physical expression in the forms of electricity and the gaseous, liquid, and solid states of matter. At the same time, the Earth plane is intimately connected in occult thought with the planet on which we live, so that Mother Earth herself is assumed to be the product of a four-fold interaction of agencies. This mindset is embedded in phrases current even today, such as ‘the four corners of the Earth’, and is also in familiar concepts like that of the four cardinal directions, North, South, East and West.

In tarot lore, the Square represents “the Earth and all that’s in it”, and by implication, authority over the world of matter, the capacity to control it, or some part of it, be it a nation or a small personal fiefdom, such as the head of a typing pool might hold sway over. As a result, in divination The Emperor signifies temporal power and the qualities required to maintain it: leadership, physical strength, either strength of the body or, more likely today, strength in the form of wealth, arms or manpower, as well as a degree of moral potency, since nothing causes popular support to evaporate faster than deliberate, undisguised favoritism or looking the other way when illegal acts are committed. The link between temporal power and Mother Earth, in the shape of the mother-country or the fatherland, needs no explanation, I feel sure.

4marseille  4 II  bota trump 04

Examination of the Trump’s secondary symbol, the cross, draws us once more toward the four cardinal directions; for many maps are marked, for purposes of orientation, with a cross, at each point of which is printed a letter corresponding to one of these directions. Most weathervanes are marked similarly. A good many spatial divisions are divisions into four, and both the examples I have just given relate to that concept, a notion so fundamental to the human mind as to be ingrained in us to the extent that we tend automatically to cleave the world spreading out all around us from beneath our feet into four sectors, even if these are only before, behind, to the right and to the left.

Having stated already the connection between the occult principle assigned to The Emperor and its divinatory significance, I will move on to the next number, Five.

The Pope

Just as the number Four in tarot lore relates both to Mother Earth and the Four Hermetic Elements, so does Five relate firstly to the Fifth element, Æther, as the animating factor that enlivens the four visible Elements, which, without its influence would be nothing but dead matter. Secondly Five relates to Spirit envisaged as the polar opposite of Matter. In this arrangement, Matter corresponds to the number 4, Spirit to the number 5.

The geometric symbol given to Trump 5 is the Pentagram, or five-pointed star. When the sigils of the Elements are assigned to the points of the Pentagram, that for Æther is always set beside (or sometimes within) the uppermost point.The illustration below reproduces this idea in diagrammatic form.

pent with elements

When the head, or the powers of common-sense and wisdom, hold sway in an individual, that person functions in the way Shakespeare describes in the “What a piece of work is a man!” speech from Hamlet. “How noble in reason [he is], how infinite in faculty . . . in action how like an angel, in apprehension how like a god — the beauty of the world, the paragon of animals!” Such a person’s actions manifest in the world in a variety of ways but are always rooted in sentiments of goodness, compassion and generosity of nature. Three hundred years ago, in an ideal situation, the person most expected to exhibit these qualities was a man of the church. This would also be the individual many turned to for advice when difficult decisions were in the offing. In Part 1 of this article, the synopsis I gave of Trump 5’s divinatory significances read “Goodness, compassion, generosity of spirit; an advisor or counselor.” Clearly, the card’s occult connotations directly affected the predictive meaning that the great tarot masters of the nineteenth century assigned it.

Throughout the world of western occultism, the Pentagram is universally considered to represent the human being. The symbol is often depicted superimposed over the figure of a man, his arms outstretched and his legs parted so that each of his five extremities coincides with one of the pentagram’s arms, as in the following  illustration.

man-pentagram

What is rarely understood is that the pentagram relates – Shakespeare’s eulogy notwithstanding – to the unperfected human being lacking in spiritual enlightenment, the unredeemed man or woman of Christian theology, there often designated ‘the Old Adam’. The traditional symbol of the perfected spiritual human being is the six-pointed star, of which more in a while.

Shakespeare, a master of words if ever there was one, uses simile to describe rational human beings. In action, they are “like an angel”; in understanding, they are “like a god”. Like an angel but not an angel; like a god but not one. Shakespeare, himself an initiate, knew that human beings stand at the center of a scale, and are capable of either rising above that level or sinking below it. The latter propensity we find revealed all too vividly in the reversed meanings given by the tarot masters of another generation to Trump 5 in reverse.

“Self-seeking in religion rather than the helping of one’s fellow-creatures. Another person’s tyranny and selfish interference in the inquirer’s life. Or the inquirer will meet with craftiness, guile, where she expected to meet with loyalty and trust.”

The Lovers

Trump 6 is assigned as its geometric form the Hexagram, two triangles, one apex upwards, the other apex downwards. At times one triangle is superimposed over the other, at other times the triangles are interlaced. Occasionally, the triangles are of different colors, in which case the colors represent opposites such as: White and Black, day and night, action and repose; Red and Blue, fire and water, heat and coolness. In the Hexagram, however, the opposites are not at odds; they are in harmony, that being one of the prime meanings of The Lovers on whatever plane we examine it.

Even so, as Dion Fortune says:

“Force in equilibrium is static, potential, never dynamic, because force in equilibrium implies two opposing forces which have perfectly neutralized each other and thus rendered each other inert, inoperative. Upset the equilibrium, and the forces are freed for action, change can take place; growth, evolution, organization can occur. There is no possibility of progress in perfect equilibrium; it is a state of rest.”

The Mystical Qabalah, p. 301.

The occultist must always have it mind that the potency represented by Trump 6 is temporary, and therefore to be regarded as unstable. Dion Fortune again points us in the right direction.

“Equilibrium is the result of the balance of contending forces; consequently, they must pull one against the other.”

The Mystical Qabalah, p. 301.

This pull, or tension, must prevail eventually. When the equilibrium of the hexagram is upset the two forces that composed it are liberated and the immediate result is growth, evolution, and the organization of the lesser but more complex forces generated in the process, just as Dion Fortune has indicated.

It was with reference to the harmonious aspect of the Hexagram that the early tarot masters gave Trump 6 the divinatory significance of Attraction, Affection, and Love. It was with reference to the pulling of two triangles one against another that they gave the Trump such meanings as Temptation, Two ‘loves’ or rival interests, and Ordeal. The picture on the Tarot de Marseilles version of the card depicts the latter of these meanings while the design of the Waite-Smith card depicts the former.

In divination, when The Lovers denotes an ordeal and is upright, the meaning is “some kind of test that the inquirer will pass successfully”. If the card is reversed, then sadly the chances are that the inquirer will fail the test, in whole or in part. Any ordeal, great or small, that we overcome leads on to a victory on some level, moral, intellectual, or material; and the more rigorous the test, the more illustrious the reward. It is no accident that the Trump coming after The Lovers is The Chariot, the main keynote of which is Victory.

Only where the hexagram symbolizes the perfected human being does it become an emblem of stability. In that instance, it points to a paradisiacal, Eden-before-the-Fall, state. It is this condition we are shown in the Waite-Smith illustration, whereon Adam and Eve, naked to demonstrate their innocence, live in harmony not only with each other and Nature but with the Divine, symbolized by the angel in the upper portion of the card. In this picture, the accent is on the love/affection/harmony facet of the Trump’s energies, and, giving for once his personal view of the card, Waite says that it signifies:

“Material union, affection, desire, natural love, passion, harmony of things; contains also the notions of modus vivendi, concord and so forth; equilibrium.”

bota trump 06   mmTarot 06

Paul Foster Case follows Waite in this, just as he follows him in the use of the Garden-of-Eden-before-the-Fall image for the Trump. In The Tarot, a Key to the Wisdom of the Ages, Case gives The Lovers the meanings:

“Attraction, beauty, love. Harmony of inner and outer life.”

The thinking of both men is that this equilibrium, this harmony of inner and outer life, existed in the Edenic state and will exist again once all human beings have ascended to spiritual perfection. In the Waite-Smith and B.O.T.A. cards, temptation, represented by the serpent coiled up the tree behind the woman, is present but not heavily accented. Conversely, on the Tarot de Marseilles card, temptation, in the form of choice, is emphasized while love/affection/harmony aspect of the card is barely hinted at.

The Chariot

Trump 7 has two geometric symbols associated with it. The first is the Heptagram, the seven-pointed star, and the second is a Triangle standing on a Square    –           3 + 4 = 7.

The Trumps are assigned “grams” and not “gons”. By this, I mean that you will find the pentagram, the hexagram, the heptagram, the octogram, etc., linked to certain Trumps but not the pentagon, hexagon, heptagon, octagon or any other kind of “gon”. The ’gram is considered the more appropriate symbol for a tarot Trump because it signifies an active, out-reaching energy, as denoted by its spreading arms. The “gon” indicates a self-contained and inward-looking force, a state again denoted by the “gons” shape, which encloses, womb-like.

The Heptagram associated with The Chariot generally has the Seven Planets of the Ancients (i.e., the planets one can see with the unaided eye) inscribed upon its arms. (See diagram.) The planets are always distributed in a particular order, such that, if one starts with the Sun and follows the lines of the Heptagram across and back, over and over until one arrives again at the Sun, one will have touched all the planets in their weekday order – Sunday, Monday (Moon day), (what follows is easier to understand if the days are given in French) Tuesday/mardi (the day of Mars), mercredi (the day of Mercury), jeudi (the day of Jupiter), vendredi (the day of Venus), and (back to English again for the final day of the week) Saturday (the day of Saturn). In those occult schools where teaching is given out in accordance with the order of the tarot Trumps, the qualities of the planets are imparted under the heading of the seventh Trump, The Chariot.

planets days of week

The card’s other geometric figure, a triangle standing on a square (see diagram), symbolizes Spirit (the Trinity, represented by the triangle) governing Matter (the square). It is the state of affairs described by the poet Browning as “God’s in his heaven; all’s right with the world.” In most cultures seven is a lucky number, as are multiples of seven. In the tarot Trumps, those numbered 7, 14 & 21 are considered particularly fortunate.

image4

mmTarot 07  07 II  GDtrump7

The condition represented by Trump 7 is preceded by a situation marked with tension or disquiet, as embodied by the Ordeal or Choice aspect of The Lovers. With the ordeal passed, the right choice made, it is as if a page had been turned in the Book of Life. What presents itself now can be described as Advancement, Unhindered Progress, Triumph, Victory, or Success. This advancement or victory is like as not arrived at by the overcoming of obstacles. All of this was encapsulated in the divinatory meanings allotted The Chariot by the tarot masters of old. They remain, by and large, the meanings associated with the Trump by modern day tarot readers, probably because, with the exception of decks from the recent po-mo era, the subject matter of the card has not altered at all. The chariot may face to the side (as in the G.D. tarot) rather than to the front; the charioteer may wear a helmet rather than a crown, or he may wear the double crown of the Egyptian Pharaohs instead of the one decorated with pentagrams that Eliphas Levi gives him; sphinxes or horses or bulls may pull his triumphal car, but essentially the picture presented is of a person in motion, going somewhere, and thus embodying keywords associated with Trump 7 such as advancement and progress.

It is taken as read that the man in the chariot is riding in triumph, and this assumption accounts for the remaining keywords attributed to The Chariot: Victory, Triumph, Attainment, Success.

The occult principle associated with this card corresponds to these keywords, for it is imbued with the will to triumph, to stabilize the unstable, to put errors right. In order to understand the symbol of the Triangle, not only above a Square, but standing on it, we must imagine both shapes first as separate entities, not conjoined, not even in alignment; in a word, disordered. Matter has lost its contact with Spirit; Spirit lacks a role, a raison d’etre. Order must be reestablished if the work of evolution is to continue. It should be realized how much effort has gone into placing the Triangle on top of the Square. That feat accomplished, however, the blocks are off, and it is all systems go, on the spiritual, ethical, and material planes alike.

*

There is an interesting divinatory peculiarity to Trump 7. I will deal with that, and one other anomaly, in the final part of this article.

To be concluded.

The First Septenary, pt. 1

by Tony Willis     

Having reviewed the significance in the predictive tarot of the first seven Trumps, it is time to pause and take stock. The meanings of these cards can be classed as traditional in that they remained more or less unaltered for three hundred years, from the point in the eighteenth century when Antoine de Gebelin brought the tarot to the attention of French occultists until the second half of the twentieth century. Those meanings can be summarized as follows.

1. Physical control of a situation; success through effort.

2. Intellectual control of a situation; mastery through understanding.

3. Fruitfulness of plans. Something coming to fruition. Abundance. Plenty.

4. Stability.Support. Realization of aims.

5. Goodness, compassion, generosity of spirit. An advisor or counselor.

6. Attraction. Affection. Desire. Temptation. Two ‘loves’ or rival interests

7. Triumph, Victory, Overcoming obstacles.

From the standpoint of practical occultism, however, the Trumps have more profound significances and these we can access by examining the various geometrical figures associated with them.

As explained in the previous post, Trump 7, The Chariot, has a particular geometrical shape assigned to it: a triangle standing on a square. Let us examine now the geometric shapes associated with the other six Trumps of this septenary.

Trump 1, The Juggler, is assigned two symbols: the point and the straight line. To understand their significance, we must turn to the definitions given by Euclid in his Elements (of Geometry). A point, as defined by Euclid, has position but no dimension; that is, it exists but cannot be seen, being an infinitesimally small speck in space. If you have difficulty with the concept, imagine yourself in a perfectly rectangular room. There will be a spot somewhere in that three-dimensional space that can be described as the exact center of the room. The room will certainly have a central spot, it must do; but that point cannot be seen with the naked eye: it is the same for the point in geometry, according to Euclid. When a human geometrician makes a mark on sheet of paper to identify the place from where she will commence her measurements, the point is made manifest; it is, however, now a dot, and no longer a point as defined by Euclid.

The father of geometry further defines a line as “the shortest distance between two points”. In all primitive cultures, and some not so primitive, One is represented by a straight line, as it is in Roman numerals. Occultism takes One to be synonymous with Divinity. That Divinity may be called God or Allah, Jehovah or Yahweh, Jove or Brahman. The occultist assigns all such concepts to the number One, also termed Unity and the Monad (unit, Gr.). Occultist also designate Divinity the Macrocosm, literally the great world.

In Monas Hieroglyphica, John Dee upholds the supremacy of the point, and by inference the supremacy of the One from which all else descends.:

The circle without a straight line cannot be artificially created, nor a straight line without a point. Consequently, everything, properly, began from the point and the monad. And whatever is strived for by the periphery of the circle, no matter how big it is, can in no way succeed without the ministry of the central point.

The point exists but has no dimension. Trump 1’s other symbol is the line, which both exists and is apprehendable by the senses. One is invisible, the other visible. To highlight these properties of Trump 1, in some occult tarots the words Visible and Invisible are printed on the card. (See illustration below.)

Arcane-Arcana-01-bateleur-magician Arcane-Arcana-02-papesse-high-priestess

The occult significance of Trump 1 is that each member of the human race is a perfect Microcosm of the Macrocosm, a small universe replicating in miniature the great universe that is the Divine.

Trump 2, the Female Pope or High Priestess has, like the Juggler, two geometric figures assigned to it. One of them is two straight lines standing parallel to one another. This figure may either be depicted horizontally, in which case it resembles an equals sign (see illustration above), or vertically, as in the Roman numeral Two or the astrological sigil for Gemini.

The second geometric figure assigned to the Papess is the equal-armed cross, formed of two straight lines of equal length, one laid transversely across the other. In some versions of the card, the Female Pope wears a cross of this type on her breast. (See the illustrations below.) Although Trump 2 is almost universally associated with the Moon, there are occult schools that insist on calling this symbol a solar cross.

The occult significance of the Papess is that manifestation takes place when the One divides into Two and those Two act and react on each other. Often this proposition is represented on the card as twin pillars, alike in form but differing in color, set either side of the seated Female Pope. Occult schools the world over acknowledge the existence of these two factors. In the west they may be classified as Force and Form, in China as Yin and Yang, in India as Ida and Pingala. It is their interplay that gives rise to the world as we experience it. As the Tao Teh Ching puts it:

One gives birth to Two.

Two gives birth to Three.

Three gives birth to everything.

One of these factors is credited with a positive charge, the other with a negative charge; and on the physical plane they are apparent in the phenomena of electricity and magnetism. One factor emits energy effulgently, the other receives energy and by turns absorbs it and reflects it outwards. These propensities are represented symbolically by the Sun and Moon placed at the tops of the pillars in some representations of the Papess. (See illustrations below.)

mouni-02  2-priestess

As a codicil to the above, it should be remembered that Manifestation ends when Multiplicity is resolved or absorbed back into Unity.

Any person who grasps the relevance of the occult principles laying behind Trumps 1 and 2 has the key to practical occultism in their hands. The action of inserting that key into the corresponding lock and turning it comes under the governance of the Empress, Trump 3.

This card has only one geometric figure assigned to it: the Triangle. In the first illustration below, a triangle stands at the top of the first card, next to the number three above the image of the Empress. In the second, the Empress bears on her breast a triangle painted red, the most dynamic of colors. The triangle is the first example of what geometry calls a plane figure. With the introduction of plane figures, a step change occurs in the process that Christo-Judaic theology terms Creation. Remember what is written in the Tao Teh Ching: “One gives birth to Two. Two gives birth to Three.” A slow, laborious process is being described, which suddenly speeds up when we reach, “Three gives birth to everything.”

In eastern occult thought, the triad of forces behind The Empress card are known as the Three Gunas; in the west they are generally denominated the Three Alchemical Principles: Salt, Sulfur and Mercury. None of these name refer to any physical substance; they merely suggest properties the Alchemical Principles possess. Alchemical Salt is slow to change; Alchemical Sulfur, on the other hand, is volatile. Alchemical Mercury represents a condition midway between the other two; neither too resistant to change nor too apt to flare up at the least provocation.

In tarot terms, the Empress herself forms a triad with the two preceding Trumps. The Juggler stands for Will, the Papess for Intelligence. The Empress stands for Action based on Will and directed by Intelligence. Will enacted unintelligently fails. Intelligence unsupported by Will can never be translated into action.

Arcane-Arcana-03-imperatrice-empress   BOTA Empress

In some older books on the tarot, you will find the Empress assigned Action as a divinatory keyword. However, Action is more usefully reserved as a name for the occult principle the Empress represents. A better divinatory meaning would be Fruitful Action, this being in line with the flow of energy signified by Trump 3 as described in the phrase “Action grounded in Will directed by Intelligence”.

The number Three is a highly productive potency in occult thought, as the quote from the Tao Teh Ching makes clear, Numerically, Two plus Two equals Four, and Two times Two also equals Four, the results of addition and multiplication being the same; But while Three plus Three equals Six, Three times Three equals Nine, and so Three is regarded as the first fertile number, mystically the mother of all subsequent numbers.

Her occult significance is variously named Fertility, Multiplication or Generation. But it should be ever remembered that she gains that significance by being the third member of the triad Juggler, Papess, Empress, where the Juggler and the Papess denote male and female forces respectively, or more accurately, positive and negative charges, the Force and Form of Western occultism. The Empress is the result of their interaction. The value of this process can be grasped by meditating on the sequence Thesis, Antithesis, Synthesis. One sees this process in action throughout the history of science: someone comes up with a workable hypothesis to explain a certain phenomenon which seems to satisfy the known facts; but eventually, perhaps because further data has become available, the hypothesis is challenged and a state of doubt prevails until somebody comes up with an explanation encompassing the original facts and the newly discovered ones, at which point a new hypothesis, a synthesis of all currently available knowledge, is created, and stability reigns again     . . . until newly discovered data upsets the balance once more. The Empress represents the “Synthesis” part of this equation.

While from one standpoint it is true, as the Tao Teh Ching tells us, that

One gives birth to Two.

Two gives birth to Three.

Three gives birth to everything.

from another it is possible to say: One by transmutation becomes Two, Two becomes Three, Three becomes Four, and so on. Thus it is that, In the terminology of the ancient alchemists, the Three Alchemical Principles are said to give rise to the Four traditional Elements of Fire, Water, Air and Earth. Therefore, through the examination of the occult implications of the Empress, Trump 3, we are ineluctably drawn towards a study of the Emperor, Trump 4.

*

Before I move on to the remaining cards comprising this septenary, take a moment to look back at the divinatory meanings given for Trumps 1, 2, and 3 at the beginning of this article, and compare them with the occult principles associated with these same cards. You will see that the former are instances of the latter manifesting on the physical plane.

To be continued.

The Chariot of Hermes

by Tony Willis    

Unlike the situation with Trump 6, the Lovers, when we come to Trump 7, we find that the image on the card appears, with the extremely rare exception, to have been that of a single figure riding in a chariot; and the title appears universally to have been The Chariot, and not as one might have expected, the Charioteer. Some depictions have the chariot travelling right to left across the card, others have it travelling from left to right; less frequently in the earliest cards it is shown head-on, as if it were coming straight at the observer. The gender of the person riding in the chariot is sometimes indeterminate, the contours of the body masked by clothing, and long hair being as applicable to a young male as to a female in a Renaissance setting. A selection of depictions of Trump 7, from the fifteenth century up to and including the Waite-Smith version (twentieth century), are shown below. I include one example of a design with five figures riding in the chariot, but as I have already remarked, it is atypical for there to be more than one person in the chariot in any decks dated between the early fifteenth and the early twentieth centuries.

early chariotearly21issychariot

caryyalechariot07 II7ChariotRiderWaites

Just as the image and title of Trump 7 have a simple history when compared with that of most other Trumps, so are its divinatory meanings relatively simple, too. They are all tuned to the same note, so to speak. Most commentators assume that the charioteer is riding in a victory parade, a form of celebration common in ancient and classical Rome. A Roman general, having won a series of battles, or having made one highly significant conquest, was allowed to ride the streets of the capital wearing all the panoply of triumph, with a slave standing at his shoulder murmuring in his ear, “Remember you are but a man.” The slave is absent from the tarot card and so, therefore, is that part of the symbolism. The rest remains in tact, and in textbook delineations for The Chariot one finds the words “victory”, “triumph”, and “conquest” repeated over and over again.

S.L. Mathers, for instance, puts forward the meanings: Triumph, Victory, Overcoming obstacles. Frank Lind re-words the core idea as: Conquest, Progress, Driving ahead, Achievement in a big way. Mathers echoes Papus and Paul Christian, both of whom assign Victory and Triumph to the card. Lind, inspired by the image of a chariot apparently moving forward adopts the terms Progress and Driving ahead, and substitutes Achievement for Triumph.

At the time Mathers was writing (1888), an “occult” title had been attached to the card: The Chariot of Hermes. The Greek god Hermes, whose Roman equivalent is Mercury, was accepted as a symbol of human intelligence, and as a result Trump 7 became associated in some schools of esoteric thought with the idea that what the card emblemized was the human mind obtaining a victory over some portion of the material world. Reflecting this concept, Sepharial assigns the card the meaning: “Victory gained by the intelligence, the subjugation of the elements by the work of man”, and he is not alone in doing so. When writing under the pseudonym Grand Orient, A.E. Waite reveals what he actually thinks about the individual Trumps. Grand Orient’s reading of the Chariot is, “Triumph of reason; success in natural things; . . . conquest, and all external correspondences of these.”

These notions go back to Paul Christian, and possibly to his teacher Eliphas Levi. They rest on the symbolical representation of the number 7 employed by the Mysteryimage4 Schools. Occultly speaking, Seven is embodied, in its positive aspect, as a triangle (3) above a square (4). The triangle is Spirit, as we find it represented in the Christian Trinity and in Divine Triads the world over, such as the Hindu Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva. The square symbolizes Matter with its Four Elements, Four “Corners”, Four Cardinal Directions – North, South, East, and West. A triangle standing on a square indicates Spirit directing or guiding Matter. For this reason, Paul Christian describes Trump 7 as signifying “The dominance of spirit over natural force”; and, at a lower level, as denoting “The submission of matter to the intelligence and will-power of man.”

One gypsy meaning I have come across offers, simply, a one word meaning: Victory. Another gypsy meaning, drawn from a different source, is that the card “Announces great honor for the client.”

Levi also introduced to the meanings of this card the idea of providential protection. This was taken up by Paul Christian and later by Papus. In The Tarot of the Bohemians, Papus gives the card the meaning Providential Protection, while in The Tarot of Divination, he says it denotes “Protection through divine providence”. This is not a meaning with much currency among today’s tarot readers, not in the English-speaking world at any rate.

As is often the case, the reversed meanings of Trump 7 are the plain opposite of its upright meanings.

Sepharial has it signifying defeat or quarrelling. Mathers gives: Overthrown, Conquered by Obstacles at the last moment. “Quarrelling” may be assigned to the reversed card image5because it signals division in contradistinction to the upright card which symbolizes Spirit and Matter working together, the former directing or acting as mentor to the latter. The geometric image associated with the Trump reversed is a square standing over a triangle with its apex pointing downward. In this figure material requirements dominate spiritual impulses, the result, it is to be presumed, being an antagonistic relationship between the two in contrast to the image of a triangle resting on a square, where all is assumed to be as it should be, Spirit and Matter cooperating in harmony and equilibration. This interpretation of the geometric figure is reflected in a gypsy reading of the card reversed, namely that “the client will be unhappy at home”, no doubt due to a lack of concord on the domestic front.

One school of thought has the reversed card signifying rescue from pressing difficulties at the eleventh hour, the total opposite of Mathers’ reading of the card. This interpretation is linked to the upright significance assigned the card by Levi that I just mentioned: Providential protection. Here Providence is assumed to be willing to allow the inquirer’s woes to pile up, the situation becoming steadily more precarious until, at the very last moment, she steps in to save the day. Again this is a meaning one doesn’t encounter very frequently in tarot circles in the English-speaking world.

From time to time, but not often, one finds the two views yoked together, as in the following delineation put together by Richard Huson, father of Paul Huson (himself the author of two books on tarot, The Devil’s Picture Book and Mystical Origins of the Tarot).

This card symbolizes victory, triumph over snares and obstacles, and the help and protection of Providence. Reversed, it indicates discouragement, quarrels, defeat.

Qabalah, the Tarot and me

by Tony Willis     

Some readers have shown an interest in my attitude toward the Qabalah. For the benefit of those who have not heard of it, the Qabalah is a spiritual-philosophical system having its roots in mystical Judaism. Over the centuries a Christianized form of Qabalah emerged and it was in this mode that it was employed by the Order of the Golden Dawn.

The pseudo-occultist treats the Qabalah as little more than a virtual filing system. That is to do it an injustice. There is an exercise Qabalistic students are expected to undertake whereby an idea, such as an ocean-going liner considered conceptually, has its component parts, from galley to bridge, projected on to the Tree of Life; but that is a method of training the mind, not the be all and end all of Qabalism. To maintain that the major ration of Qabalistic practice lies in its function as a filing system is as absurd as insisting that the major part of portrait painting consists in color-mixing. In both instances, one is a the necessary preparation for the hard work of the other. As Dion Fortune so aptly put it: “The value does not lie in the prescribed exercises as ends in themselves, but in the powers that will be developed if they are persevered with.” The Mystical Qabalah, p. 16. Elsewhere in the same book, D.F. explicitly states: “The Tree of Life is a method of using the mind, not a system of knowledge.”

One of the ways this method works out in practice can be demonstrated with an anecdote from my own life. In the 1970s, I became interested in the Runes, the magickal alphabet of the Norse and Anglo-Saxon races. As one who had undergone a G.D. training in Hermeticism along much the same lines as Dion Fortune herself, one of the first things I did was attempt to place the twenty-four runic letters onto the twenty-two Paths of the Tree of Life. I had to work out from first principles the Paths to which the runic letters should be ascribed, taking into account that there are more letters than Paths. That is where the hours of arduous training in assigning apparently arbitrary factors to the Tree paid off. By formulating these correspondences, I added considerably to my understanding of the Runes on the one hand and of the Paths on the other. This is an object lesson in the manner in which the Tree may be used as a clearing house for otherwise uncategorized information, or for the verification of data whose classification has, for whatever reason, become doubtful or adulterated.

Three Steps on the Path of the Mysteries

My occult life may be divided into three unequal portions. In the days of my early studies I knew nothing whatever of the Qabalah; I hadn’t even heard the name. At the age of twenty-one I entered a G.D. Temple and there I put on the mantle of a Qabalist; I became for a time a die-hard, died-in-the-wool exponent of Qabalah. Twenty years later, my primary Inner Plane Contact suggested that I forsake Qabalism, offering sound and rational reasons why it would be beneficial for me to do so. I explained what I had been asked to do to an occultist friend and her response was that she could never under any circumstances abandon the Qabalah. She would not, she said, be in a position to orient herself if all the familiar landmarks were removed.

Frankly, I felt much the same. But my IPC had put forward the suggestion and I therefore felt it my duty at least to give it serious consideration. At this point, one of Aleister Crowley’s reminiscences floated up into my conscious mind, something to the effect that the Qabalah is a ladder by which the occult student may ascend to a certain psycho-spiritual vantage point, but that once that vantage point was gained, in Crowley’s opinion, the ladder should be kicked away. Curious to know what would happen if those circumstances were invoked, I kicked out at the ladder . . . and became a lapsed Qabalist – albeit one freighted with a solid comprehension of Qabalistic lore.

Before I joined the G.D., I had had three great loves: magick, astrology and the tarot. Cutting my ties with the Qabalah made not one speck of difference to my attitude to magick and astrology. It did, however, transform my relationship with the tarot. First and foremost, it freed the Trumps from the Paths of the Tree of Life, and from the Hebrew letters and their esoteric associations. It also freed the Trumps from their G.D. ordering. I no longer had to accept The Fool as leader of the Trumps, nor Strength as Trump 8 and Justice as Trump 11. This realization led to further insights that I have neither the time nor the space to go into here.

I was free to explore, unencumbered by GD preconceptions concerning the tarot, a method explained by Papus whereby the twenty-one numbered Trumps are considered as three septenaries, or groups of seven cards, with the Fool separated from these septenaries, a factor distinct in a number of ways from the rest of the tarot deck. I also experimented with the Naples Arrangement (see The Tarot For Today by Mayananda, 1963) in which the Trumps are set out in a circle, making the Fool both the beginning and the end of the sequence of Trumps, an idea much loved by the British occultist Madeline Montalban. Slowly a different understanding of the tarot started to build up, and another method of using the Trumps for guided visualizations was developed that was not the same as the Path-workings D.F. speaks of in The Mystical Qabalah but which yielded results nevertheless.

However, one thing I want to make clear is that, in divorcing myself from the Qabalah, I was in no way repudiating it. The Qabalistic system affords an effective blueprint for the training of an Adept, and I will be forever grateful for the esoteric grounding it gave me. At the same time, it is well to remember that Qabalah is but one system among many. Indeed, it should be borne in mind that there are a number of competing Qabalistic training systems in existence besides the plethora of non-Qabalistic ones. Judging from what I have seen, all do the job they set out to do.

The Qabalistic schools fulfill a need, but not every mind finds Qabalistic training congenial. It is not a Path for all. Thankfully there are other mystery schools available to those who are tuned to a wavelength other than the Qabalistic one. The sincere seeker will always find her- or himself led to the training method appropriate to her/his temperament – though the quest itself can on occasion take the form of a minor initiatory experience.

Inspiration & the Predictive Tarot

by Tony Willis

As we saw in the previous article, the Golden Dawn’s handbook on the tarot assigned a keyword to Trump 6 in the tarot, the Lovers, that is found nowhere else in occult literature. The keyword is Inspiration and it refers particularly to the type of inspiration that has such an impact on the mind into which it flows that its result is a physical action. On account of this, the G.D. text contains the expression “motive-power”, signifying that the inspiration is an impulse to action on the material plane.

The Lovers card is endowed with this meaning by the G.D. because the Order aligns it with the 17th Path on the Tree of Life, a path that leads from the realm of Understanding to that of Harmony. The idea is that a beam of energy descends from the sphere of Understanding and penetrates the central sphere of the Tree of Life, whose function is ever to seek equilibrium. The energy beam transmits a concept that, if acted upon, will restore harmony to the life of the person in whose mind the process is being enacted. The image the G.D. chose to depict the event was of the Greek hero Perseus descending, drawn sword in hand, to rescue the North African princess Andromeda from a sea monster, symbol of inertia born of fear.

The G.D. text is careful to distinguish between the inspiration represented by the Lovers and that associated with the Magician, the Hierophant and the Hermit. It is a distinction of vital importance to occultists for whom the principle “magic is the science of causing changes in consciousness’’” is a key tenet. However, to the average tarot reader, not to mention the average person, the distinction means precious little. For that reason the G.D. interpretation gained no foothold in the world of tarot divination.

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Another factor for its non-acceptance may have been that, in the French school of tarot established a generation or two before the founding of the G.D., Inspiration was recognized as a meaning for Trump 5, the Pope, In conjunction with the symbol of the Pope, emblematic of the link between the Divine mind and the human mind, inspiration indicated a hunch or presentiment.

     05 II     r-w-hierophant

Even people who have never themselves had a hunch know what one is. They will have met the idea in t.v. crime dramas, where lead detectives are forever having hunches that, when followed up, lead to a breakthrough that solves the case. This meaning at least can be of use to the exponent of the divinatory tarot, and therefore one occasionally comes across delineations of the order:

Sometimes,this Trump presages a forthcoming inspiration which, if followed, can lead to a way out of present difficulties or to financial gain.

Otherwise, the idea of inspiration strikes a dumb note predictively. One hears it rarely in connection the the Pope (or Hierophant), and outside of a G.D. Temple, never in association with the Lovers.

Love, Choice, Temptation, Test

by Tony Willis

The image on the sixth Trump in the Tarot de Marseilles is unlike the earliest illustrations of the card still in existence. They show either a man and a woman holding hands, the god of love hovering overhead, or a parade of couples below and

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one or more cupids in a nimbus above. If Gertrude Moakely is correct in her surmise that the tarot Trumps, sometimes called Triumphs, were based on parades popular in Italy in the fourteenth century and also known as Triumphs, then Trump 6 would have represented the triumph of Love, and would have been named accordingly. The fifteenth century Trumps lack titles and so we may never know for sure the names by which all twenty-two were known in that era.

The image had changed considerably by the time the Marseilles Tarots were printed. Three people fill the lower portion of the card: a man stands between two women. The one constant is the bow-wielding cupid fluttering above. (Card on the left below.)The card’s title may have altered, too, if it was originally Love, as The Tarot de Marseilles card has L’Amoreux, the Lover, printed at the bottom. Translated into English, this became The Lovers, and that is how Trump 6 is known throughout the English-speaking world today. Change of image accompanies a change of meaning. This is reflected in a title occasionally awarded to the Tarot de Marseilles version of the card, namely The Two Paths. In many decks, the two paths can be seen quite distinctly. (Card on the right below.)

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The meaning derived from this tableau is Choice. The central male figure is assumed to be choosing between the two women standing either side of him. Each wishes him not only to choose her as his mate but also to follow her along the road that lies on her side of the card. They are often taken to represent Virtue and Vice. In the design from Papus’s Tarot of the Bohemians (card on the left below), one of the women wears a crown to mark her out as a symbol not just of virtue but of supreme good, for the highest Sphere on the Qabalistic Tree of Life is represented by the image of a crown. The message is made even clearer in some decks, where the figure of Vice has no hesitation in flaunting her physical charms at the man. This is the case in the illustration on the right below, which depicts Vice bare-breasted while Virtue points heavenwards, towards the divine realm of lofty thoughts and pure intentions.

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By the end of the nineteenth century, both meanings – Love and Choice – were current in tarot divination circles. A few taroists accepted one and rejected the other, while in some circles attempts were made to accommodate them both. In the middle of the twentieth century British occultist Frank Lind successfully blended the two in his manual How To Read the Tarot (written in the 1950s but not published until the 1960s): “Affection. Choice. Indecision. Desire. Temptation. Two ‘loves’ or rival interests”.the-lovers-6

The French esoteric tradition tended to view Trump 6 as foreshadowing a Test. Paul Christian, in the translation of his work I consulted, uses the word Ordeal, though S.L. Mathers, writing in English and without his Golden Dawn hat on, opts for Trial. Other experts (C.C. Zain for example) interpret the test as a Temptation. (See Lind’s set of keywords above.) For Mathers the upright card denotes “trials surmounted”. Similarly, for those who take the card to signify Temptation, Trump 6 upright will indicate the ability to resist the temptation; just as, for those who favor the meaning Choice, the upright card generally signifies “making the right choice”.

When Mathers came to write a handbook on the tarot for the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, he adopted novel image for Trump 6 – Perseus rescuing Andromeda from the sea-monster. Along with this image went an equally new meaning. But as this meaning has had almost no impact of the world of tarot outside the Golden Dawn (and not much impact within it if my and Auntie’s experiences are anything to go by), I will say no more about it for now.

Yet another innovative image, and like the G.D. picture, one havingBOTA Lovers no antecedents among the cards of earlier tarots, was created for the Waite-Smith tarot deck, first published 1909. It depicts Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden before the Fall. To my mind the better representation of this image is to be found in the Builders of the Adytum deck, and it is that version you see here on the right.

In the book he created to accompany the Waite-Smith deck (The Key to the Tarot), Waite concentrates on the love/affection/ harmony aspect of the Trump, to which he appends the keyword ‘test’. He says nothing about the G.D. meaning, not because it was at that time an occult secret, but because he rejects it. Writing under the pseudonym Grand Orient, Waite revealed the meanings he personally favored for Trump 6: “Material union, affection, desire, natural love, passion, harmony of things; contains also the notions of modus vivendi, concord and so forth; equilibrium.” This approach to the card parallels that favored by Paul Foster Case [see The Tarot (Jeremy P Tarcher)]: “Attraction, beauty, love. Harmony of inner and outer life.” Neither Waite in the guise of Grand Orient nor Case reference Test or Choice in the meanings they offer their readers. Nor do either cite the G.D. meaning for the card, Inspiration, although both were graduates of the G.D. school of Hermetic occultism. As was Crowley, but he does retain the G.D. meaning albeit alongside several others most of which I have already touched on in this article: “Openness to inspiration, intuition, intelligence, childishness, attraction, beauty, love, self-contradiction, instability, indecision, union in a shallow degree with others, superficiality.” The later meanings apply to the card when it is in reverse, or ill-dignified as members of the G.D. were more apt to say.

In over sixty years of working with the tarot I have used all the meanings put forward above. My experience is that, from the predictive angle, the meaning that yields the best results is ‘Love’, taken in its broadest sense. Depending on the nature of the question asked, The Lovers can represent the start of a love affair, familial affections or the entry into the inquirer’s life of someone who will become a firm friend. As one old book of delineations puts it, “This card expresses love and all that treats of the affections”.

Who’s Who in the Tarot

by Tony Willis     

As they represent the Five Elements, the essences, one might say, of which everything in the cosmos is composed, the first five tarot Trumps hold a special significance. They are more likely than the other cards of the Major Arcana to indicate people. In a horoscope spread, the card falling in the first house will convey the state of the inquirer’s mind at the time of the reading, and can be taken to represent her (or him) at that specific moment in time. But that is not the effect being described here.

Take Trump 1, the Juggler or Magician, for example. This card references the inquirer. To understand this better, imagine that the following line of cards comes out as part of a tarot spread: 5 Pence, 9 Swords, Juggler, 9 Cups. Keeping to the divinatory meanings that originated with the Golden Dawn, we can make sense of the tableaux in the following way. It will be the inquirer themselves (Juggler) who overcomes the problems signified by the 5 of Pence and the 9 of Swords, and brings about the success, pleasure and happiness forecast by the 9 of Cups.

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There are exceptions to this rule, the most obvious occurring when the horoscope spread is employed. In that case, the Juggler in the third house of siblings indicates that the inquirer’s brother or sister is about to make an important change to their circumstances, one that will be accomplished smoothly if the card is upright, or that will be beset with obstacles and setbacks if it is reversed. But in most other types of spreads, Trump 1 stands for the person consulting the cards.

On the contrary, Trumps 2 to 5 tend to represent other people, their intentions, motives and actions. This approach can be particularly useful when working with the Trumps alone. It does, however, raise certain problems, such as whom each of these cards should indicate. Depending on the question asked, either the High Priestess or the Empress can represent the inquirer’s mother. Likewise, either the Pope/Hierophant or the Emperor can represent the inquirer’s father. In matters of love, I take the Empress to indicate the female inquirer and the Emperor to indicate her love interest. For a male inquirer, I reverse the signification and take the Emperor to represent the inquirer and then the Empress is his lady love. The High Priestess, should the card appear in a spread relating to a love question, might then indicate the inquirer’s mother, and the Pope their father. Other solutions to this problem have been suggested but this is the one I find works best for me.

Again exceptions occur when the horoscope spread is employed. The High Priestess in the first house of a horoscope spread, for instance, registers that, at the time of the reading, the inquirer is in a reflective frame of mind. The gender of the inquirer makes no difference to the interpretation. Either way, the inquirer is most probably in planning mode; or if the inquirer works in literature or the arts, they may have finished a painting or a novel and be in that lull that falls on the creative mind between the completion of one piece of work and the start of the next.

Pairings

The first five Trumps also have particular meanings when any two of them occupy houses 1 and 7 in a horoscope spread. In such an instance, the combination forms a comment on the relationship between the inquirer and his or her other half.

The Juggler and The High Priestess occupying those houses, no matter which card is in the first house, signifies that the two people concerned have much in common but that there is enough divergence in interest to add spice to the relationship.

The Juggler and The Pope in these houses is a sign of complimentary personalities: the desire to direct events in one party is balanced by the good judgment and the inclusive approach of the other. In this, and in all other examples, the actual gender of the people involved is of no relevance. In the present instance, both parties could just as easily be female and the implications would remain unaltered.

The Juggler and The Empress. The common factor shared by these two cards is creativity. The pair may work together in some creative activity, like David and Elizabeth Emanuel, who designed Princess Diana’s wedding dress. Or the person designated by The Empress could be the other’s muse or inspiration. Or the couple could have careers in the same field of artistic endeavor, as Victorian poets Robert Browning and his wife Elizabeth Barrett Browning did. Sometimes the person represented by The Juggler is a business woman or man while the person represented by The Empress is their Rock, the ever-dependable, sure foundation to whom the business-oriented person can turn for reassurance, love and unquestioning support.

The Juggler and The Emperor indicates great compatibility in respect of material goals. Whichever partner is represented by The Juggler is an instigator of actions; the one represented by The Emperor has the focus to see a thing through to a conclusion. It is the symbol of the power couple.

The High Priestess and The Empress are also complementary. The party represented by the High Priestess is knowledge-orientated, without necessarily being wise. Yet the card describes someone who can plan effectively. The Empress provides the emotional intelligence that The High Priestess often lacks. It can be an edgy partnership if one or both parties isn’t able to honor or accept the other’s input.

The High Priestess and The Emperor. The High Priestess’s accumulated data will be put to good use by The Emperor thus ensuring that The High Priestess’s vision becomes reality.

The High Priestess and The Pope. This pair have the same religious, spiritual or ethical outlook on life. However, each may strive in their own way to make the world a better place. Humanitarian interests or ecological concerns are at the heart of what they do, on whatever scale they choose to do it. It is a combination ideally suited to fostering or adoption.

The Empress and The Emperor. The couple are soul mates. They may well have been together in a previous life.

The Empress and The Pope. Both parties have charitable dispositions and display generosity of spirit. Neither is a push-over, however, as both are grounded individuals. It can be a very formidable combination when applied to the realm of art or spirituality.

The Emperor and The Pope. Ideally the personalities complement one another and this acts as a spur to them to shape the material world through their joint efforts. The Emperor’s practical rationalism is balanced by the philosophical or spiritual motivations of The Pope.

The Devil

Besides these five cards, there is one other that can signify an individual. It is The Devil reversed. In that state Trump 15 can represent an enemy or rival.

All other Trumps should be assumed to relate directly to the inquirer. Death is a symbol of some kind of loss: it is the inquirer’s loss. This tends to be true even when the card appears in a horoscope spread. Death in the eleventh house of friends, for instance, is more likely to forecast the end of a friendship than to indicate that one of the inquirer’s friends will suffer a loss. By the same token, The Chariot is a symbol of victory: it is the inquirer’s victory. The Tower is a symbol of disruption or destruction: it is the inquirer’s life that will be disrupted, something of the inquirer’s – it may be a relationship or their career – that will be destroyed.